Cannabis sativa subsp. indica var. indica (Lam.) Persoon, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 618, 1807.
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|Cannabis sativa subsp. indica var. indica (Lam.) Persoon, Synopsis Plantarum 2: 618, 1807.|
Cannabis indica Lamarck, Encyclopédie Méthodique 1(2): 694-695, 1785 Basionym. See McPartland (1992) for justification of citing Persoon as the authority in the comb. nov, not Wehmer as treated in Small and Cronquist (1976).
≡ C. sativa var. indica (Lam.) Fristedt, Upsala Läkareförenings Förhandlingar 5: 504, 1869-1870.
≡ C. sativa f. indica (Lam.) Voss in Siebert & Voss, Vilmorin’s Blumengärtnerei 1: 912, 1896.
≡ C. sativa var. indica (Lam.) Wehmer, Die Pflanzenstoffe p. 248, 1911.
= C. sativa var. indica Blume, Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië, p. 515, 1825.
= C. macrosperma Stokes, Botanical Materia Medica 4: 539, 1812.
≡ C. sativa var. macrosperma (Stokes) Chevalier, Revue de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Coloniale 24: 64, 1944.
= C. sativa γ crispata Hasskarl, Neuer Schlüssel zu Rumph’s Herbarium amboinense p. 112, 1886.
= C. sativa β vulgaris de Candolle, Prodromus 16(1):31, 1869 (en part, based on plants cultivated in India).
= C. americana Houghton & Hamilton, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 55: 445, 1907, nomen nudum.
≡ C. americana Wehmer, Die Pflanzenstoffe, 2: 157, 1911, nomen nudum.
= C. madagascar Pearson, Proc. Penna. Pharm. Assoc. 1909: 179, 1909, nomen nudum.
= C. africana Glickman, Mulford’s Veterinary Bulletin 4(2): 88, 1912, nomen nudum.
≡ C. sativa var. africana Wehmer, Die Pflanzenstoffe 2: 39, 1935.
= C. mexicana Stanley, Am. J. Police Science 2(3): 252, 1931, nomen nudum.
India, likely Pondicherry, Lamarck, no date, annotated "Chanvre rapporte de l’Inde par M. Sonnerat" (herb. P). Most of Pierre Sonnerat’s herbarium specimens at herb. P were collected around Pondicherry between 1775 and 1778.
Plants with THC% ≥0.3% in inflorescence and a THC/CBD ratio always ≥7, often much more; central leaflet length:width ratio ≥6 in fan leaves near the base of inflorescences; mature achenes usually ≥ 3.6 mm long, the perianth mostly sloughed off, lacking a prominent protuberant base, and lacking a well-developed abscission zone that allows easy disarticulation.
Plants usually >2.0 m tall (shorter in inhospitable situations). Central stem (stalk) internodes relatively long (often >12 cm, shorter in shorter plants), somewhat hollow (up to 1/3 stem diameter). Branches flexible, diverging from the stalk at relatively acute angles (around 45°). Leaf palmately compound, largest leaves typically with at least 7 leaflets, leaflet edges not overlapping. Central leaflet long and narrow, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate in shape; margins with moderately coarse serrations, and rare secondary serrations. Female inflorescence (and infructescence) elongated and somewhat diffuse, with relatively obscure sugar leaves (a high perigonal bract-to-leaf index). Sugar leaves with CSGTs limited to the proximal half. Perigonal bract covered with a moderate density of CSGTs. Perianth membranous, hyaline with pigmented areas (brown and mottled or marbled in appearance); mostly sloughed off but sometimes persistent. Achene, usually ≥ 3.6 mm long, globose to elongate, exocarp green-brown; abscission zone poorly developed.
Dried female inflorescences: THC ≥0.3%, in late 20th century accessions, nearly always >1.0%; literature weighted x¯ = 3.97%, up to 12.5%. THC/CBD ratio ≥7, and often >100. THCV is commonly present, especially in landraces from South Asia and Africa. Hillig and Mahlberg (2004) report THCV+CBDV% content x¯ = 0.25%. Terpenoid profile often imparts an “herbal” or “sweet” aroma, with terpinolene, β -caryophyllene, trans- β -farnesene, and a -guaiene content significantly higher than Central Asian plants.
Landraces of South Asian heritage segregated from Central Asian landraces in an allozyme analysis ( Hillig 2005a) and cpDNA haplotype study ( Gilmore et al. 2007). “Sativa” and “Indica” were segregated with STR loci ( Knight et al. 2010), RAPD markers ( Piluzza et al. 2013), and nDNA SNP haplotypes ( Henry 2015; Lynch et al. 2016). Other studies showed little or no genetic differences between “Sativa” and “Indica” ( Sawler et al. 2015; Dufresnes et al. 2017), or their phenotypes matched poorly with their purported genotypes ( Schwabe and McGlaughlin 2018).
Generally late maturing; monoecious plants relatively common compared to the other varieties; susceptible to black mildew caused by Schiffnerula cannabis .
Provenance and uses.
Originally cultivated in India for gañjā, and spread at an early date to southeast Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
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