Belyta Jurine, 1807,

Quadros, Alex Leite & Brandão, Carlos Roberto F., 2017, Genera of Belytinae (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) recorded in the Atlantic Dense Ombrophilous Forest from Paraíba to Santa Catarina, Brazil, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 57 (6), pp. 57-91: 62-63

publication ID 10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.06

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Belyta Jurine, 1807


Belyta Jurine, 1807 

( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 E-F, 6, 7, 12B, 15D-E, 23C)

Total of specimens found: 285 (158 females and 127 males) in 18 morphospecies.

Diagnosis: Small (1.8 mm) to large (7 mm) specimens; antenna 15-segmented in females, 14-segmented in males; the form of female antenna varies, with flagellar segments gradually enlarged towards the apex, filiform or wider at the middle; mandibles short (mandible length shorter than the distance between the ventrolateral margins of the head, near the bases of the mandibles), asymmetrical, with wide base and wide inner tooth inverted backwards ( Figs. 6AView FIGURE 6, 12BView FIGURE 12); subantennal furrows percurrent, confluent with subantennal rugosity; antennal sockets more or less projected anterodorsally. Body slender, a bit depressed or totally flattened in lateral view, female’s mesosoma more flattened than of male’s ( Figs. 6C, 6EView FIGURE 6); pronotum more or less cervicoid subdivided into pronotal neck and pronotal collar ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7); pronotal shoulder rounded ( Fig. 7AView FIGURE 7) or angular ( Fig. 7BView FIGURE 7). Forewing with closed ( Fig. 4EView FIGURE 4) or open ( Fig. 4FView FIGURE 4) radial cell; marginal vein shorter than parastigma ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 E-F).

Material examined: BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: São Bento do Sul, CEPA Rugendas , 26°19’25.6”S, 49°18’26.5”W, 13-16.x.2001, A.M. Penteado- Dias e eq. col., 2 ♀♀GoogleMaps  ; São Francisco do Sul, CEPA Vila da Glória , 26°13’40.0”S, 48°40’49.1”W, 14-17.x.2001 (11), 17-20.x.2001 (3), 17.x.2001 (2), A.M. Penteado-Dias e eq. col., 11 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 5 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; São Paulo: Base Barra Grande, Parque Estadual de Intervales , 24°18’14.4”S, 48°21’50.4”W, 13-16. xii.2000 (4), 10-13.xii.2000 (1), 11-14.xii.2000 (2), 14-17.xii.2000 (3), 12.xii.2000 (1), 13.xii.2000 (3), 15.xii.2000 (1), M. T. Tavares e eq. col., 9 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 6 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Ubatuba, Parque Estadual Serra do Mar , 23°21’43”S, 44°49’22”W, 21.i.2002 (30), 22.i.2002 (16), 23.i.2002 (2), 24.i.2002 (5), N.W. Perioto e eq. col., 34♀♀GoogleMaps  / 19♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Peruíbe, Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins , 24°31’06”S, 47°12’06”W, 05.v.2002, M. T. Tavares e eq. col., 1 ♀GoogleMaps  ; Rio de Janeiro: Nova Iguaçu, Reserva Biológica do Tinguá , 22°34’32”S, 43°26’09”W, 06-09. iii.2002 (1), 05-08.iii.2002 (5), 08-11.iii.2002 (14), 09-12.iii.2002 (30), 07.iii.2002 (5), 08.iii.2002 (3), S. T. P. Amarante e eq. col., 30 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 28 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Santa Maria Madalena, Parque Estadual do Desengano , 21°59’03.9”S, 41°57’08.4”W, 16-19.iv.2002 (14), 19-22.iv.2002 (14), 21.iv.2002 (2), A.M. Penteado- Dias e eq. col., 13 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 17 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Bahia: Ilhéus , Mata Esperança  , 14°46’S / 39°04’W, 15-18.v.2002 (1), 18-21.v.2002 (6), 17.v.2002 (3), A.M. Penteado- Dias e eq. col., 8 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 2 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Mata  de São João, Reserva de Sapiranga , 12°33’42.1”S, 38°02’43.8”W, 19-22.vii.2001 (3), 22-25.vii.2001 (3), 20-23. vii.2001 (3), 21.vii.2001 (2), 24.vii.2001 (4), M. T. Tavares e eq. col., 9 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 6 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Porto Seguro, Estação Ecológica Pau Brasil , 16°22’17.7”S, 39°10’55.8”W, 16.v.2002 (1), 17.v.2002 (1), 18.v.2002 (3), 20.v.2002 (1), 21.v.2002 (15), C.O. Azevedo e eq. col., 7 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 14 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Sergipe: Santa Luzia do Itanhy, Reserva Ecológica do Castro , 11°22’37.9”S, 37°25’01.8”W, 01-04.viii.2001 (20), 30.vii-02.viii.2001 (5), 02-05. viii.2001 (20), 01.viii.2001 (9), M. T. Tavares e eq. col., 25 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 29 ♂♂GoogleMaps  ; Alagoas: Quebrangulo, Reserva Biológica Pedra Talhada , 09°18’57.6”S, 36°27’57.6”W, 08-11.ix.2002 (7), 11-14.ix.2002 (1), 11.ix.2002 (1), A.M. Penteado-Dias e eq. col., 8 ♀♀GoogleMaps  / 1 ♂GoogleMaps  ; Pernambuco: Recife, Parque dos Dois Irmãos , 08°03’14”S, 34°52’52”W, 18-21.vii.2002, S. T. P. Amarante e eq. col., 1 ♀. A.L. Quadros det.GoogleMaps 

Remarks: The genus was established for Belyta bicolor Jurine, 1807  , by monotypy. Kieffer’s (1916) concept of Belyta  is based on the flattened mesosoma. All species classified by Kieffer under Belyta  (except for one) display the diagnostic characters accepted for the genus, still a reliable diagnostic character for Belyta  , but only for females; in males the mesosoma is generally convex in side view. The flattened female body might represent an adaptation for facultative terrestrial habits (search for hosts), contrary to the predominantly free-living activities of males. Sexual dimorphism of Belyta  species had not been fully appreciated, and conspecific males and females were described as different species, sometimes being even assigned to different genera ( Pantoclis, Xenotoma  , Aclista  ) ( Macek, 1996). There are 91 described species of Belyta  in the world ( Johnson, 1992), being Belyta rufipes Kieffer, 1906  the only species recorded in the Neotropics (San Marcos, Nicaragua) ( Kieffer, 1906) thus far; Hanson & Gauld (2006) estimated some twenty species in this region. Nixon’s (1957) identification key is reliable to separate European species, although with greater focus on the British fauna, and suggests how a thorough re-evaluation of previously described species is needed. Subsequently, keys were published for the Finland ( Hellen, 1964), Switzerland ( Wall, 1967), European part of USSR ( Kozlov, 1978) and SW-Germany ( Wall, 1993) species. Macek (1996) revised and keyed out the 16 European Belyta  species he recognized as valid.

Distribution: Belyta  is cosmopolite ( Hanson & Gauld, 2006). In the Atlantic Forest Belyta  species have been recorded from Santa Catarina to Pernambuco ( Fig. 23CView FIGURE 23).

Biology: Most species are polyvoltine parasitoids of Mycetophilidae ( Hanson & Gauld, 2006)  . Some species may show affinity to a specific plant formation ( Macek, 1996).


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics