Conostegia montana (Swartz) D. Don ex DC

Kriebel, Ricardo, 2016, A Monograph of Conostegia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae), PhytoKeys 67, pp. 1-326: 79-85

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Conostegia montana (Swartz) D. Don ex DC


Conostegia montana (Swartz) D. Don ex DC   Figs 90 View Figure 90 , 91 View Figure 91

Conostegia montana   (Swartz) D. Don ex DC, Prodr. 3: 175. 1828. Melastoma montana   Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 69. 1788. Type: Jamaica. no date, O. Swartz s.n. (holotype: S!)

Melastoma calyptrata   Desr. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 4: 51. 1797. Type: Antilles, 177 in herb. Surian (v.s. Apud. D. de Jussieu) (not seen: Cogniaux’s monograph cites a Richard specimen at P, apparently the type, of which there is a photograph in IJ; the latter has served to authenticate the name).

Conostegia alpina   Macfad., Fl. Jamaica 2: 72. 1850; nom. inval.

Conostegia calyptrata   (Desr.) DC, Prodr. 3: 174. 1828.

Conostegia cooperi   Cogn, DC. Mon. Phan. 7: 705. 1891. Type: Costa Rica: Cartago: 1500 m, 1888, J. Cooper 290 (distributed by Donnell Smith as 5740) (holotype: BR; isotypes: A, CAS!, F, GH!, K!, M!, US!).

Conostegia petiolata   Gleason, Brittonia 1: 184. 1932. Type: British Guiana (= Guyana). Demerara, no date, Parker s.n. (holotype: K!).

Conostegia multiflora   Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 416. 1939. Type: Ecuador. Esmeraldas: Playa Rica, Parroquia de Concepción, 105 m, 7 December 1936, Y. Mexía 8409 (holotype: NY!; isotypes: BM, F!, GH, K!, MO, NY!, S!, UC!, US!).


Shrubs to small trees 2-11 m tall with apically tetragonal stems that are glabrous or pubescent with stellate hairs or occasionally furfuraceous with sessile and stipitate stellate hairs; the nodal line present yet slight. Leaves of a pair equal to unequal in length. Petioles 0.3-6.7 cm long, sometimes bearing to small tubercles abaxially at the lamina/petiole junction. Leaf blades 3.8-21.3 × 1.2-9.6 cm, 3-5 nerved or slightly plinerved, narrowly ovate to ovate, elliptic or obovate, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or with some scattered stellulate hairs abaxially. The base acute to rounded, the apex acute to acuminate, the margin entire to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal panicle 2.7-18.1 cm long branched above the base but sometimes appearing branched at the base because of multiple inflorescences arising at opposing meristems at the terminal node, rarely a spike, accessory branches infrequent, the rachis glabrous or with some stellulate hairs, sometimes strongly flattened, subulate, lanceolate or slightly ovate, bracteoles 0.5-1 × 0.25-0.5 mm, early deciduous or persistent. Flowers sessile or more commonly with pedicels to 1mm long. Flowers (4-)5(-7) merous, calyptrate. Flower buds 4-7(-10) × 2.25-4.3 mm, variable in shape, mostly obovoid to ellipsoid, the base rounded, the apex acute to apiculate, slightly constricted below the calyptra; the hypanthium 2.85-3.25 × 4-4.5 mm, glabrous or with few scattered stellate trichomes. Petals 4.5-5.25 × 4-4.25 mm, white to pink or lilac, oblong or obovate, spreading to somewhat reflexed, the apex rounded to emarginate, glabrous. Stamens (9-)12-16(-19), slightly zygomorphic, the filament 2.5-3.5 mm, white, 1.5-2.5 × 0.5-0.75 mm, yellow, the pore 0.1-0.25 mm wide. Ovary (4-)5-7(-8) locular, inferior, the apex glabrous and elevated into a collar around the style. Style 3.25-3.75 mm, straight and curving towards the apex, vertical distance between the anther and the stigma -2 - -0.5 mm, horizontal distance absent, stigma truncate to capitellate, 1.3-1.6 mm wide. Berry 4.5-6 × 4.5-6 mm, purple black. Seeds 0.6 mm, pyramidal, smooth.


(Fig. 92 View Figure 92 ). Lesser Antilles, Jamaica, in Mesoamerica from Mexico (Chiapas) to Panama (except Belize and El Salvador), western Colombia, northern Ecuador, and coastal Venezuela, at 0-2100 m in elevation.

Among the variation of this species there are populations in the mountains of Guatemala and Costa Rica that have two small knob-like structures at the apex of the petioles. In general this species tends to have some pubescence but never as dense and with as well defined stellate trichomes as typical Conostegia micrantha   . Other populations such as the one at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica are glabrous and symmpatric with typical Conostegia micrantha   . Other variants include leaves with conspicuously serrate margins such as a population in Cerro Hornito in Panama, and one population in Cerro Jefe, also in Panama, has very coriaceous leaves. For similarities to Conostegia vulcanicola   , see discussion under the latter. The molecular phylogeny ( Kriebel et al. 2015) including several specimens of different phenotypes of Conostegia montana   from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, and Jamaica revealed a clade with good support which included all the latter accessions, but also included Conostegia micrantha   and Conostegia setosa   nested within them. This suggests Conostegia montana   is actually paraphyletic indicating this species complex is in need of more work. One species that is recognized in this revision and which Schnell (1996) considered a synonym of Conostegia montana   is Conostegia fragrantissima   . For a discussion of the differences between both, see the discussion under the latter species. Schnell (1996) clarified the precedence of the Swartz name Melastoma montana   over Melastoma calyptrata   .

Specimens examined.

DOMINICA. Roseau: Laudat, Beard 1467 ( NY); Near the Fresh Water Lake on southeast side of Morne Micotrin and along old road on side of the mountain 1-1/ 2 miles east of Laudat, Chambers 2563 ( MO NY); Castle Bruce Road and Trace, Cowan 1622 ( NY); Lloyd 188 ( NY); St. John. Morne Diablotin on NW ridge, Webster 13325 ( MO, NY); Sylvania, Rainforest bordering Imperial Road, Hodge 3972 ( NY); Proctor 95 ( NY); Lower slopes of Morne Plat Pays above Bellevue along trail to Grand Bay, Wilbur et al. 7879 ( NY).

GUADALOUPE. Basse Terre: Grand Etang, Barrier 2404 ( NY); loc. cit., Martin and Gus 489 ( NY); Forest above Bains Jaunes, Howard 19386 ( NY); Forest near les Mamelles, Howard 19778 ( NY).

JAMAICA. Portland: Hillside Cura Cura Gap, Britton 3527 ( NY); North side of Cuna Cuna Pass, Harris 10652 ( NY); 0.5 mile north of Hardwar Gap, Port Royal Mts, Proctor 9346 ( NY). St. Andrew : Blue Mountains , along the road from Newcas tle to Catherine’s Peak, Skean and Slantis 1872 ( MO, NY); Blue Mountains , Hollywell Gardens, along the "Waterfall Trail" originating at the rental cabins, Skean and Slantis 1903 ( NY). St. George : Vicinity of Cinchona , between Moodee’s Gap and Vinegar Hill, Britton 163, 221 ( NY); Below Vinegar Hill, Harris 6336 ( NY)   . St. Thomas: Saint Thomas and Portland Parish boundary, Blue Mountains, Trail from just below Blue Mountain Peak (Middle Peak) to Portland Gap, Judd 5288 ( NY); Portland Gap, Proctor 8204, 9597 ( NY); West slope of Blue Mt. Peak , Proctor 9443 ( NY); West slopes of Blue Mountain Peak between Portland Gap and the top, Skean and Slantis 1919 ( NY)   .

MARTINIQUE. Saint-Pierre: Near L’Alma, Bailey and Bailey 284 ( NY); Valle du Carbet St. Denis, Duss 108924 ( NY).

ST. VINCENT. Valley of north fork of Cumberland River, Morton 5519 ( MO, NY); Smith and Smith 994 ( NY).

MEXICO (fide Schnell). Chiapas: km 18 Col. Cuahutemoc trinitaria Chiapas, Shilom Ton 8196 ( MO).

GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Wet forest near Tactic above the bridge across Río Frío, Standley 90312 ( NY); Large swamp east of Tactic , Standley 92640 ( NY)   . Baja Verapaz: Entrada al Biotopo Universitario para la Conservación del Quetzal, Kriebel et al. 5568 ( NY, USCG); Biotopo del Quetzal WNW of Purulhá, Stevens et al. 25434 ( MO, NY)   . Izabal: Sierra Caral, sendero al sur de la casa de investigadores hacia la cima de la Sierra Caral, mitad del camino, Kriebel et al. 5593 ( NY, USCG)   .

HONDURAS. Comayagua: Bosque de pino-liquidambar de Montaña El Cedral Cordillera Montecillos, Molina 7202 ( NY)   . Cortés: frecuente en el bosque nebuloso de Cusuco, Montaña Idalfonso, norte de Cofradía, Molina 7256, 8252 ( NY)   . Intibucá: Bosque abierto de El Cedral 20 kms al suroeste de Siguatepeque camino a Jesus de Otoro , Molina 6150 ( NY)   . La Paz: Cut over cloud forest of Montana Verde on Cordillera Guajiquiro , Molina 24374 ( NY)   . Ocotepeque: a 35 km al NE de Nvo Ocotepeque camino a San Pedro Sula, Martínez and Téllez 12986 ( MO, NY)   .

COSTA RICA. Alajuela: La Palma de San Ramón, Brenes 5577, 5647, 6282 ( CR, NY); Guatuso, P.N. Volcán Tenorio, Cuenca del Río Frío, Alto Masís, Chaves and Muñoz 335 ( INB, NY); Finca La Paz , San Ramón, Kriebel 1476 ( INB, NY); Parque Nacional Volcán Tenorio, Estación El Pilón, Sendero hacia Cerro Montezuma, Kriebel et al. 5496 ( INB, NY); Vara Blanca de Sarapiqui , north slope of Central Cordillera , Skutch 3314 ( NY)   . Cartago: approximately 2 km E of Peñas Blancas bordering the Rio Naranjo , Almeda and Nakai 3958 ( CR, NY); P.N. Tapantí, alrededores de la estación, Kriebel 5352 ( INB, NY); Kiri Lodge sendero a la catarata, Kriebel et al. 5466 ( INB, NY); south slope of Turrialba Volcano above Santa Cruz, Williams 19662 ( NY). Heredia: Z. P. La Selva, camino al lindero sur, Kriebel et al. 3984 ( INB, NY)   . Limón: Parque Internacional La Amistad , Camp 2, ridge above camp, Monro and Santamaria 5540 ( INB, NY); Talamanca, P.I. La Amistad, colectando en transecto 2 y alrededores, Solano 4165 ( INB, NY); Valle de la Estrella, Fila Matama, Cerca de 11 km SW del pueblo de Aguas Zarcas, Sitio Helechal, Solano et al. 4759 ( INB, NY)   . Puntarenas: Monteverde cloud forest reserve, Lumer 1025, 1101 ( CR, NY); Buenos Aires Sabanas Esperanza y Bosques Aledaños, Santamaría et al. 4407 ( INB, NY)   . San José: Pérez Zeledón, Río Nuevo, Savegre Abajo , Finca de Julio Mena , Estrada et al. 2194 ( CR, NY); Rio Quebradas a orillas de la carretera Interamericana camino a Perez Zeledon , Kriebel and Hammel 3338 ( INB, NY)   .

PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Robalo Trail Northern slopes of Cerro Horqueta, Allen 4942, 5006 ( NY); along road to Chiriquí Grande c. 10 road miles from continental divide and about 2 miles along road east of highway, McPherson 10834 ( MO, NY). Canal Zone : Militar Reserva Fuerta Sherman and adjacent canal zone, road S-1 between Gatun and Pina, Liesner 1360 ( MO, NY); Premontane wet forest along road S1 5.5 km W of Gatun Dam, Nee and Hale 9692 ( NY)   . Chiriquí: Quebrada Velo Vcty. Finca Lerida, Allen 4684 ( NY); heavily forested slope above the Río Caldera beyond Bajo Mono in the vecinity of Boquete , Wilbur et al. 11075 ( MO, NY)   . Colón: Carretera hacia el poblado de Piñas, Galdames and Guillén 3317, 3320 ( MO, NY); Santa Rita Ridge 2-3 miles from Transisthmian Hwy, Gentry 1860 ( NY)   . Darién: Coasi-Cana trail on Cerro Campamento E. of Tres Bocas headwater of Río Coasi, Kirkbride and Duke 1253 ( MO, NY)   . Panamá: between peaks of Cerro Trinidad saddle on SE slope, Kirkbride and Duke 1643 ( MO, NY); El Llano-Cartí road about 4.6 miles north of junction with Pan-American Highway, trail to east, McPherson 12514 ( MO, NY). San Blas: El Llano-Carti road near Nusagandi along Sendero Nusagandi, c. 11 road-miles from Pan-American Highway, McPherson 12731 ( MO, NY)   . Veraguas: Serranía de Tute, Aranda et al. 2672 ( NY); above Santa Fé on slopes of Cerro Tute below Agricultural School , Gentry 6217 ( MO, NY)   .

COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Municipio Campamento, 6 km NO del pueblo en la vía a Mina Las Brisas, Callejas et al. ( MO, NY)   . Chocó: cerca del río Atrato en los alrededores de Quibdó, Araque and Barkley 129 ( NY); Rio Munguido afluente del rio Atrato , alrededores de Altagracia, Forero et al. 1504 ( MO, NY); Top of Serrania del Darien ca. due east of Unguia , Gentry et al. 16790 ( MO, NY); Top of Serrania del Darien exactly on the frontier with Panama, N.E. of Cerro Mali, Gentry et al. 16982 ( MO, NY); North ridge of Alto de Buey east-southwest of El Valle, Gentry and Fallen 17381 ( NY); 7 km W. of Tutenendo on road to Quibdo, Gentry and Fallen 17591 ( MO, NY). El Valle: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occidental, Hoya del rio Digua lado izquierdo, Piedra de Moler , Cuatrecasas 14983, 15100 ( NY); Costa del Pacifico , rio Yurumangui , El Aguacate, Cuatrecasas 16146 ( NY); Rio Calima ( región del Chocó), entre Herradura de Ordónez y Peña de Campotriste, Cuatrecasas 16633, 16689 ( NY); Costa del Pacifico , rio Cajambre , Barco, Cuatrecasas 16950, 17247 ( NY); Punta Magdalena, Haught 5589 ( NY). Gorgona Island : " Sr. George " Expedition 705 ( NY). Nariño: Barbacoas, Alston 8490 ( NY)   .

ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: San José km 321 along railroad from Ibarra to San Lorenzo, Boom 1325 ( MO, NY); The Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, Bilsa Bio logical Station, Mache mountains 35 km W of Quinindé, collected on Ramon Loor’s property, Clark 3088 ( NY); Bilsa Biological Station , Reserva Ecologica Mache-Chindul 40 km NW of Quinindé, Loma de los Guerrilleros, Permanent plot 2, Clark 4054 ( MO, NY); Territorio Indígena Awá, Mataje village , Neil et al. 12498 ( MO, NY); Reserva Biologica Bilsa, sendero Amarillo, Stern and Tepe 392 ( NY)   . Pichincha: Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito km 113, Betancourt 139 ( NY); Reserva de ENDESA km 113 along Quito-Pto. Quito rd, Luteyn and Borchsenius 13343 ( NY).

VENEZUELA (fide Schnell). Zulia: San José de los Altos, Sierra Perijá, Delascio and Benkowsky 2952 ( US).














Conostegia montana (Swartz) D. Don ex DC

Kriebel, Ricardo 2016

Conostegia multiflora

Gleason 1939

Conostegia petiolata

Gleason 1932

Conostegia cooperi

Cogniaux 1891

Melastoma calyptrata

Desr 1797