Fejervarya asmati, Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali, 2011

Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali, 2011, A new species of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Bangladesh, Zootaxa 2761, pp. 41-50: 43-48

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.202485

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5667502

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/82658048-FFE7-FFAD-FF3F-FBCC6285F864

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Fejervarya asmati
status

sp. nov.

Fejervarya asmati   sp. nov.

Figs. 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3

Holotype.—Adult male, MZD/F-01, collected in front of Teachers Club and Guest House (22 ° 28´N, 91 ° 47´E), Chittagong University campus, Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh; collected by M. S. A. Howlader, May 15, 2008.

Paratopotypes.—MZD/F-02 (adult female), MZD/F-03 (adult male), MZD/F-04 (adult male), MZD/F-05 (adult male), and MZD/F-06 (adult male) collected from the same locality as the holotype; collected by M. S. A. Howlader & J. I. Taher, May 16, 2008.

Diagnosis.—A species assigned to the genus Fejervarya   by having “Fejervaryan” line on both sides of belly, absence of rictal gland at the mouth commissure, smooth skin with minute warts or folds, lips more or less barred, fingers free of webbing, toes not fully webbed. The new species is characterized by a male SVL of 29.1– 33.4 mm; butterfly shaped vocal marking present in male; forearm length 70 % of hand length; relative length of fingers, shortest to longest: 2 <4 <1 <3; nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril–snout length 57 % of distance from front of eyes to nostril; nostril–snout length 0.67 % of internarial distance; MBE 18 % of HL.

Description of holotype (adult male).— Small sized frog ( SVL 30.0 mm). Head large, triangular, longer than wide, HW 93 % of HL, HW 32 % of SVL, HL 34 % of SVL, MFE 60 % of HL, MBE 18 % of HL. Snout nearly rounded in lateral view, SL 40 % of HL; canthus rostralis indistinct, loreal region concave. Nostrils much closer to snout tip than to eyes, NS 57 % of EN; NS 5 % of SVL, EN 9 % of SVL; nostrils rounded and very small, NS 0.67 % of IN, MN 85 % HL. Eye large, EL 41 % of HL, EL 14 % of SVL; maximum width of upper eyelid greater than interorbital distance, IOD 83 % of UEW, UEW 56 % EL, UEW 8 % SVL. Interorbital space convex, IOD 88 % of IN. Tympanum round, TD 52 % of EL, TEL 34 % TD.

Arm moderately long, robust, FAL 70 % HAL, FAL 17 % of SVL, HAL 24 % SVL. Fingers small, free of webbing, tips rounded. Relative length of fingers, shortest to longest: 2 <4 <1 <3; tips of fingers bluntly rounded; fingers lacking dermal ridge. Subarticular tubercles prominent, rounded, single tubercle per digit; supernumerary tubercles absent; two capsule shaped, distinct palmar tubercles.

Hind limbs relatively long, TL 50 % of SVL, THIGHL 87 % of TL; FOL 50 % SVL and equal to TL, FOL 70 % of TFOL. Toes long, thin, tips rounded; webbing between toes weakly developed [1 (1), 2 i (1.5), 2 e(0.5), 3 i (2), 3 e(1), 4 i (2), 4 e(2.5), 5 (0.75)]. Relative lengths of toes, shortest to longest: 1 <2 <5 <3 <4; a weak, indistinct fringe of skin on outer side of toe 5. Inner metatarsal tubercle elongated, present at base of Toe 1; Outer metatarsal tubercle is oval, minute, distinct; subarticular tubercles well-developed, nearly oval. Dorsal surface smooth, tubercles present, arranging in row or reticulated pattern; tiny granules on upper eyelids, loreal, and cloacal region. Dorsal surface of forelimb, thigh and tarsus glandular. Throat, chest, abdomen and ventral part of thigh and tibia smooth.

Coloration in life. —Basic color varies from olive green to greenish brown, with a few dark irregular spots particularly fused into transverse bands; spots are formed by tubercle arrangement on dorsal sides; sides of body marbled. A narrow middorsal line usually present up to the posterior of eyes. Two red spot found on the middorsal line and another two red spot on each of the forelimbs. Toes webbing faintly marbled. Forelimbs with dark transverse bands; hind limbs dotted on thighs and strips on lower legs. Venter immaculate.

Coloration in preservative. —In preservative olive green surface become whitish brown. Middorsal line and forelimbs lost red spots. Color arrangement of the total body become fade to their original position.

Measurements (in mm). —Male (holotype): SVL 30.0; HL 10.3; HW 9.6; MN 8.7; SL 4.1; MFE 6.2; MBE 1.9; IN 2.3; IOD 2.0; EN 2.7; NS 1.5; EL 4.3; UEW 2.4; TD 2.2; TEL 0.8; HAL 7.2; FAL 5.1; THIGHL 13.1; TL 15.1; TFOL 22.3; FOL 15.7; IMTL 1.4. Female (paratopotype): SVL 33.4; HL 11.4; HW 10.5; MN 9.5; SL 4.6; MFE 6.8; MBE 2.2; IN 2.4; IOD 2.1; EN 2.8; NS 1.7; EL 4.7; UEW 2.6; TD 2.3; TEL 0.8; HAL 7.6; FAL 5.8; THIGHL 13.7; TL 16.1; FOL 16.7; IMTL 1.7.

Variation. —Morphometric variation is shown on the table 1. Two specimens lack mid-dorsal lines (males MZD/F-05 and MZD/F-06), female (MZD/F-02) has no vocal marking and no red spots.

Advertisement call. —The advertisement call was recorded on Chittagong University campus at an air temperature of 24 ºC. The call consists of a very fast trill series of three note types: a group of similar pulsed trains (type 1) interspersed by short single notes (both type 2 and 3, or just type 3 notes) with 775 ms (N= 1) of duration ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

Each pulsed note (train) of type 1 has a duration of 92-134 ms (110 ± 15.5, N= 5); interval between two trains is about 43–71 ms (56.25 ± 12.63, N= 4). The number of pulses per train ranges from 15–18 (16.8 ± 1.3, N= 5). Pulse repetition rate within a train is 152.72 /s. These pulses have a harmonious modulation with 5 recognizable bands: fundamental frequency around 0.2 –1.0 kHz, a second band at 1.4–2.2 kHz, a formant band at 2.6–3.4 kHz; followed by further bands at 3.8–4.6 and 5.0– 5.8 kHz.

Between two trains of type 1 can be emitted a single note of type 2 (N= 1) or 0–3 single notes of type 3 (1.0± 1.41, N= 4). Occasionally, a single note of type 3 can be also emitted between two pulses of type 1 within a train with a frequency of occurrence of 20 % (N= 5).

Single notes of type 2 have a duration of 17 ms (N= 1) and are emitted 23 ms (N= 1) after the last note of first type 1 train, and 21 ms (N= 1) far from the following single note (type 3).

Skin fringe Weak and Weak and Ve ry i nd is - Ve ry i nd is - Absent Absent Vestige or Vestige or Distinct Distinct

on outer side indistinct indistinct tinct tinct reduced reduced

of 5 th toe

Body size 29.1 –30.0 33.4 mm 21.4 – 0.1 22.5–31.2 25.6–27.8 23.1–29.4 27.1 –30.0 32.8–37.2 37.8–44.1 35.7–52.3

( SVL) mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Frequency ranges from 4–7.5 kHz with a dominant frequency around 4.1–5.1 kHz. Type 3 single note sound very similar to type 2. Duration of 5–11 ms (9.0± 2.35, N= 5) and inter-note duration of 5–6 ms (5.5 ± 0.70, N= 2). The frequency of type 3 notes ranges from 1 to 6.5 KHz with a dominant frequency between 2 and 4 kHz.

Etymology. —I take great pleasure in naming the new species as a patronym for my teacher and mentor Ghazi S. M. Asmat, in recognition of his endless contributions to my personal research.

Distribution. — Fejervarya asmati   is known only from the type locality (Fig. 1). A probable record exists also from Barisal district (22 ° 58´N, 90 ° 13´E); here, similar advertisement calls were heard on May 3, 2009, but no voucher specimens are available.

Natural history. —The new species were found in temporary pools along a small stream. Specimens have been observed breeding in a canal adjacent to Chittagong University (15 th to 20 th May, 2008). Gravid females preferred choruses rather than individual or few calling males. Courtship was initiated when a gravid female approached the calling male and made a physical contact with it. The male stopped calling and immediately jumped on the back of the female and clung to it by holding it below the armpits with the forearms and formed an axillary amplexus ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). The amplexed male in turn kicked the intruder with its hind limbs. The amplexed pair moved to a small, shallow water pool on the ground within the locality where the spawning occurred.

In general, according to own observations, the courtship pattern is same for all observed species of Fejervarya   ( F. nepalensis   , F. pierrie   , F. syhadrensis   , and F. teraiensis   ) occurring at this locality. Further notes on conservation status and threats will be documented with other amphibians of Bangladesh on elsewhere.

Sympatric species.— As mentioned above, in the area of the type locality of the new species, observations of the other four Fejervarya   species occurring in Bangladesh are also available ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). As summarized in Table 1 View TABLE 1 and in the following section, the five Fejervarya   species from this area can be distinguished by a combination of various morphological characters. Furthermore, we also have data on the advertisement calls of three of these species from the same area. Detailed bioacoustic analyses will be published elsewhere, but by general call structure it is easy to distinguish the calls of F. nepalensis   , F. pierrie   , F. syhadrensis   , and F. teraiensis   from each other, and from F. a s m a t i, confirming the species status of these taxa. All Fejervarya   species breed in rainy season (April to September), but it is rare to find them to share the same place in the same time. However, they share their breeding place with species of other genera, for example, Fejervarya asmati   is usually found with Microhyla ornata   .

Comparisons. — Fejervarya asmati   is distinguished from other congeners occurring in Bangladesh as follows: butterfly shaped vocal marking on throat in male (vs. laterally dark and medially pale in both F. nepalensis   and F. pierrie   , crescent shaped in F. syhadrensis   , “W” shaped in F. teraiensis   ); forearm length 72 % hand length (vs. forearm length greater than 80– 95 % hand length in both F. nepalensis   and F. pierrie   , forearm length equal to hand length in both F. syhadrensis   and F. teraiensis   ); relative length of fingers, shortest to longest: 2 <4 <1 <3 (vs. relative length of fingers: 2 = 4 <1 <3 in both F. pierrie   and F. teraiensis   ; 2 <1 <4 <3 in F. nepalensis   ; 1 = 2 <4 <3 in F. syhadrensis   ;); nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, distance from front of eyes to nostril over 1.5 times grater than nostril-snout length (nostril not much closer to snout in other congeners); internarial distance 1.5 times greater than nostril to snout tip distance (vs. below 1.5 times in both F. nepalensis   and F. syhadrensis   ; approximately equal in F. pierrie   and F. teraiensis   ); MBE 18 % of head length (vs. MBE 26– 41 % of head length in other congeners).

Moreover, F. asmati   is distinguished from F. teraiensis   by smaller size ( SVL 29.1–33.4 mm in F. asmati   sp. nov.; SVL 35.7–52.3 mm in F. teraiensis   ); head is longer than wide (vs. head is longer than wide or equal in other congeners); snout length 37– 40 % of head length (vs. snout length 40–51 % of length in F. pierrie   , F. syhadrensis   , and F. teraiensis   ); middorsal line is narrow and distinct (vs. distinct with same width throughout from snout to vent in F. pierrie   , absent in F. syhadrensis   , variable in F. teraiensis   ); two red spot found on the middorsal line and another two red spot on each of the forelimbs usually found in male (red spot arrangements are not same in other congeners); weak and indistinct skin fringe on outer side of 5 th toe (vs. distinct in F. teraiensis   , absent in F. pierrie   , vestige or reduced in F. syhadrensis   , very indistinct in F. nepalensis   ).

TABLE 1. Summary of qualitative diagnostic characters in Fejervarya asmati sp. nov. and specimens of other congeners. Morphological ratios given as mean ± standard deviation over range.

  F. asmati   F. nepalensis   F. pierrie   F. syhadrensis   F. teraiensis  
  Male Female n=5 n=1 Male Female n=5 n=6 Male Female n=2 n=3 Male Female n=6 n=3 Male Female n=10 n=11
HL:SVL 0.34±0.01 0.34 (0.32–0.36) 0.34±0.01 0.34±0.01 (0.32–0.36) (0.33–0.37) 0.31 0.33±0.00 (0.30–0.33) (0.32–0.33) 0.32±0.00 0.33±0.01 (0.32–0.36) (0.32–0.35) 0.33±0.01 0.33±0.01 (0.31–0.36) (0.31–0.34)
HL:HW 0.93±0.01 0.92 (0.90–0.95) 1.06±0.02 1.02±0.03 (0.98–1.02) (0.99–1.05) 1.02 1.06±0.02 (1.01–1.03) (1.03–1.08) 1.03±0.03 1.04±0.03 (0.99–1.09) (1.03–1.08) 1.00±0.01 1.03±0.03 (0.96–1.03) (0.95–1.06)
SL:HL 0.38±0.01 0.40 (0.37–0.40) 0.45±0.04 0.39±0.04 (0.39–0.49) (0.34–0.44) 0.43 0.43±0.03 (0.42–0.44) (0.40–0.47) 0.47±0.03 0.45±0.06 (0.42–0.51) (0.40–0.51) 0.47±0.02 0.43±0.02 (0.44–0.49) (0.40–0.46)
EN:NS 1.77±0.04 1.66 (1.74–1.80) 1.24±0.12 1.45±0.19 (1.05–1.35) (1.13–1.64) 1.18 1.13±0.07 (1.13–1.24) (1.05–1.20) 1.14±0.16 1.22±0.15 (0.92–1.41) (1.05–1.35) 1.03±0.07 1.06±0.11 (0.91–1.13) (0.93–1.32)
IN:NS 1.49±0.03 1.43 (1.45–1.51) 1.33±0.10 1.54±0.14 (1.15–1.39) (1.31–1.73) 1.18 1.23±0.09 (1.18–1.19) (1.15–1.33) 1.38±0.21 1.44±0.12 (1.18–1.76) (1.30–1.52) 0.99±0.09 1.10±0.09 (0.76–1.09) (0.95–1.31)
EL:HL 0.42±0.01 0.41 (0.40–0.43) 0.37±0.03 0.35±0.03 (0.32–0.40) (0.30–0.39) 0.34 0.36±0.04 (0.34–0.34) (0.31–0.39) 0.37±0.02 0.33±0.04 (0.33–0.40) (0.29–0.37) 0.34±0.01 0.32±0.01 (0.32–0.37) (0.29–0.35)
EL:SVL 0.15±0.01 0.14 (0.14–0.16) 0.13±0.01 0.12±0.01 (0.11–0.15) (0.10–0.13) 0.11 0.12±0.01 (0.10–0.11) (0.10–0.13) 0.12±0.00 0.11±0.01 (0.11–0.13) (0.10–0.12) 0.11±0.00 0.11±0.00 (0.10–0.12) (0.09–0.12)
IOD:IN 0.88±0.03 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 0.92±0.07 0.91±0.11 (0.81–1.00) (0.71–1.00) 0.95 0.83±0.03 (0.95–0.95) (0.80–0.87) 0.75±0.13 0.63±0.07 (0.61–0.96) (0.55–0.69) 0.77±0.10 0.64±0.08 (0.55–0.90) (0.53–0.78)
MBE:HL 0.18±0.01 0.19 (0.17–0.19) 0.29±0.03 0.28±0.03 (0.27–0.32) (0.24–0.32) 0.30 0.31±0.01 (0.30–0.31) (0.30–0.32) 0.31±0.03 0.33±0.04 (0.27–0.35) (0.29–0.38) 0.33±0.03 0.34±0.05 (0.27–0.38) (0.28–0.41)
FAL:HAL 0.71±0.03 0.75 (0.69–0.73) 0.85±0.08 0.87±0.09 (0.80–0.96) (0.79–0.95) 0.86 0.83±0.02 (0.85–0.86) (0.80–0.84) 1.00±0.01 0.97±0.02 (0.96–1.02) (0.95–1.00) 1.01±0.07 1.02±0.09 (0.92–1.21) (0.93–1.27)
FOL:TL 1.04±0.01 1.04 (1.03–1.05) 1.01±0.02 0.97±0.01 (0.97–1.03) (0.92–1.03) 0.99 1.06±0.08 (0.99–0.99) (0.99–1.15) 1.01±0.08 1.00±0.03 (0.85–1.08) (0.97–1.03) 0.97±0.05 0.94±0.06 (0.90–1.07) (0.87–1.00)
Vo c a l marking on throat Butterfly _____ shaped dark mak- ing Laterally _____ dark and medially pale Laterally _____ dark and medially pale Crescent _____ shaped dark mak- ing “W” ______ shaped dark marking
Relative length of fingers 2<4<1<3 2<4<1<3 2<1<4<3 2<1<4<3 2=4<1<3 2=4<1<3 1=2<4<3 1=2<4<3 2=4<1<3 2=4<1<3
Middorsal line Distinct Distinct & narrow & narrow Distinct Distinct & narrow & narrow Distinct Distinct with same with same width width throughout throughout from snout from snout to vent to vent Absent Absent Va ri ab l e Variable
HAL

Martin-Luther-Universität

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Dicroglossidae

Genus

Fejervarya