Noronhia martiniana

Hong-Wa, Cynthia, 2016, A taxonomic revision of the genus Noronhia Stadtm. ex Thouars (Oleaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Boissiera 70, pp. 1-292: 179-183

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Noronhia martiniana


54. Noronhia martiniana   Hong-Wa, spec. nova ( Fig. 39).

Linociera obtusifolia var. minoriflora H. Perrier   in Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, Sér. B, Biol. Vég. 2: 279. 1949 [nom. inval.].

Noronhia obtusifolia var. minoriflora (H. Perrier)   Hong-Wa&Besnard in Mol.Phylogenet. Evol. 67: 377. 2013 [nom. inval.].

Typus: M   ADAGASCAR. Prov. Fianarantsoa: Mahabo-Mananivo , forêt de Mahabo, 23°10’34”S 47°42’12”E, 24 m, 4.XI.2001, Rabenantoandro & McPherson 683 (holo-: MO-5587144!; iso-: K, P [ P03559153]!, TEF) GoogleMaps   .

Noronhia martiniana   Hong-Wa can be distinguished from other species of the genus by its long, non-woody petioles, its oblanceolate to obovate leaf blades, its white, campanulate flowers lacking a corona, and its ovoid to oblong fruits.

Trees to 12 m tall, trunk to 28 cm diameter; young twigs cylindrical, 1.4-3.4 mm diameter, glabrous; bark medium gray to brown, smooth to rugose. Leaves opposite, persistent; bud scales rarely persistent; blades medium green above, darker below, oblanceolate to obovate, 5.5-16 3 2-7.5 cm, coriaceous, glabrous, domatia absent, base attenuate, margin revolute and slightly undulate, apex retuse to obcordate, midrib sunken above, raised below, secondary veins conspicuous, 9-15 per side, 6-21 mm apart, looping 1-4 mm from the margin; petiole yellowish to reddish, 4-28 3 1-4 mm, not woody, glabrous. Thyrses geminate, multiflorous, compact; peduncle 2-8 mm long, glabrous; pedicel 1-5 mm long, glabrous; calyx glabrous on both sides, lobes triangular, 1-1.7 3 0.9-1.5 mm; corolla white, campanulate, petals almost free, 4.5-6 mm long, glabrous on both sides, the tube 1-3 mm long, lobes ovate, apex obtuse; corona absent; stamens 2-2.5 mm long, anthers oblong, slightly apiculate, 1.7-2 mm long; pistil 1.5-2 mm long, stigma bilobed. Fruiting pedicel 2-9 3 0.9-2.4 mm; young fruits green, reddish black when mature, ovoid to oblong, 13-23.5 3 7.5-19.5 mm, smooth, sometimes covered with a white pellicle, apex flat to rostellate, the rostellum circular, truncate, with the persistent style; dry pericarp 0.2-1.2 mm thick; endocarp woody; seed 10.5-15 3 6-11.5 mm.

This species is named in honor of Martin Callmander, Head Curator of the Library and publications at the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and former Technical Advisor for the Conservation and Research program of the Missouri Botanical Garden in Antananarivo, who played the detective to find hidden material of Noronhia   at G and P, and whose help in nomenclature and historical collections greatly enhanced the quality of this revision.

180 Distribution, ecology and phenology

Conservation status


Additional specimens examined

Noronhia martiniana   occurs in littoral to low-elevation humid forests in the east, from the Masoala peninsula in the north to around Ste Luce in the south ( Fig. 36). It produces flowers and fruits throughout the year except in April and May.

There were 22 collections representing 21 localities available for analysis, which yielded an EOO of 21,396 km 2, an AOO of 72 km 2, and 12 subpopulations representing 10 locations, of which four occur within the network of protected area (Agnalazaha, Ambohidena, Masoala, and Tampolo). Noronhia martiniana   occurs mostly in the narrow band of littoral forests along the east coast of Madagascar and may have an actual AOO of less than 2,000 km 2. Decline in habitat quality and habitat loss will also very likely to continue as a result of forest exploitation, land conversion, and possibly also gradual sea level rise. Therefore, N. martiniana   is assigned a preliminary status of “Vulnerable” [ VU B 2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)].

The taxon described here as Noronhia martiniana   was first mentioned by PERRIER DE LA BâTHIE (1949) as a variety of N. obtusifolia   , but was not validly published as he failed to provide a Latin description or diagnosis, in violation of Art. 39.1 of the Code ( MCNEILL et al., 2012). Noronhia martiniana   differs from N. obtusifolia   by having large leaf blades (up to 16 cm vs. 10 cm long), long petioles (up to 28 mm vs. 20 mm long), small flowers (less than 6 mm long vs. more than 6 mm), and stamens that are oblong (vs. ovate). Molecular studies also placed these species in two different clades (HONG- WA & BESNARD, 2014). Therefore, the taxon initially recognized by PERRIER DE LA BâTHIE (1949) is described here as a new species using a different epithet and a type specimen that is more widely distributed in various herbaria. The new species can be recognized by its long, non-woody petioles, oblanceolate to obovate leaf blades, white, campanulate flowers lacking a corona, and ovoid to oblong fruits.

MADAGASCAR. Prov. Antsiranana: Ampanavoana, Vinanivao, Masoala PN, 15°41’33”S 50°13’30”E, 12-100 m, 15.IX.1996, Bernard 334 ( K, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Masoala PN, Beankoraka, 15°57’S 50°13’E, 14.XI.1994, Rahajasoa et al. 880 ( K, MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Fianarantsoa: Farafangana, Mahabo Mananivo, Nosiala, forêt d’Agnalazaha, 23°11’08”S 47°42’48”E, 50 m, 5.III.2009, Hong-Wa et al. 619 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., 5.III. 2009, Hong-Wa et al. 620 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Nosy Varika , Ambahy, 20°48’07”S 48°28’56”E, 9 m, 15. II.2004, Rabehevitra 881 ( K, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Mahabo-Mananivo, forêt de Mahabo, 23°10’38”S 47°42’35”E, 20 m, 8.XI.2001, Rabenantoandro 717 ( G, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Nosy Varika ., Ampasimaneva, forêt d’Ambolo, 20°43’59”S 48°27’09”E, 13 m, 15. VI.2004, Razakamalala et al. 1452 ( G, K, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ambahy Forest , c. 20 km S of Nosy Varika, 20°46’09”S 48°28’46”E, 3 m, 22.IV.2004, Rogers et al. 300 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toamasina: Forêt de Tampina , [18°31’S 49°17’E], X.1923, Louvel 126 ( P) GoogleMaps   ; Mahanoro, Ambalavontaka, forêt de Nankinana, 20°22’21”S 48°33’15”E, 41 m, 8.XI.2003, Rabehevitra et al. 685 ( G, K, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Sainte Marie, Lokintsy, forêt d’Ambohidena,

182 16°51’11”S 49°57’10”E, 1. VI.2004, Rabehevitra et al. 1179 ( K, MO, P, TEF); Fénérive-Est, Tampolo STF GoogleMaps   , 17°16’52”S 49°24’44”E, 0-150 m, 24. I.1995, Raholivelo 212 ( MO); Mahanoro, Ambalavontaka , forêt d’Antaimby GoogleMaps   , 20°22’22”S 48°33’56”E, 13 m, 17.IV.2004, Ranaivojaona et al. 587 ( K, MO, P, TEF); Mahanoro, Ambalavontaka , forêt d’Ampanamara GoogleMaps   , 20°22’48”S 48°33’23”E, 13 m, 12. VI.2004, Ranaivojaona et al. 707 ( MO, P, TEF); Ambalavontaka, Nankinana Forest , c. 20 km N of Nosy Varika GoogleMaps   , 20°21’34”S 48°36’20”E, 10 m, 18.IV.2004, Rogers et al. 195 ( MO, P, TAN). Prov. Toliara: Fort-Dauphin , Sainte Luce GoogleMaps   , 24°46’47”S 47°10’06”E, 14 m, 17.X.2012, Ramananjanahary et al. 784 ( MO, P, TAN); Iaboakoho, Ambanihazo , forêt d’Analandrasambo GoogleMaps   , 24°40’55”S 47°11’56”E, 22 m, 22.X.2012, Randrianaivo et al. 2036 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   .


Distribution, ecology and phenology

Conservation status



Botanische Staatssammlung München


Royal Botanic Gardens


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural


Voronezh State University


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Debrecen University


University of California


University of Warsaw


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Nanjing University














Noronhia martiniana

Hong-Wa, Cynthia 2016

Noronhia obtusifolia var. minoriflora (H. Perrier)

Hong-Wa & Besnard 2013: 377

Linociera obtusifolia var. minoriflora

H. Perrier 1949: 279