Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)

Moghaddam, Masumeh, 2013, A review of the mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae) of Iran, with descriptions of four new species and three new records for the Iranian fauna, Zootaxa 3632 (1), pp. 1-107 : 32-34

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Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)


Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)

( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 )

Dactylopius viridis Newstead, 1894: 5 . Dactylopius vastator Maskell, 1895: 65 . Dactylopius perniciosus Newstead & Willcocks, 1910: 138 . Pseudococcus solitarius Brain, 1915: 104 . Ripersia theae Rutherford, 1915: 111 . Pseudococcus perniciosus Newstead, 1920: 179 . Pseudococcus filamentosus corymbatus Green, 1922: 379 . Trionymus sericeus James, 1936: 203 .

DIAGNOSIS. Body of adult female oval to broadly oval. Antennae usually 7 segmented. Legs well developed, translucent pores present on anterior and posterior surfaces hind coxa and posterior surface of hind tibia. Number of cerarii usually difficult to verify precisely. Anal lobe cerarii each containing 2 lanceolate setae, an auxiliary seta, and a few trilocular pores, all situated on a weakly sclerotized area. Anterior cerarii on abdomen, metathorax and mesothorax each usually recognizable as paired lanceolate setae with well developed collars, and with small concentrations of trilocular pores near each collar. Cerarii not recognizable on head and prothorax, where represented by lanceolate setae similar to those in posterior cerarii, dispersed around margin. Circulus round to quadrate, not divided by an intersegmental line. Ostioles moderately developed. Dorsal surface with lanceolate setae similar to cerarian setae, but shorter and of different sizes. Ventral surface with flagellate setae. Ventral multilocular disc pores usually numerous, present posterior to vulva, in medial rows on anterior and posterior edges of abdominal segments, and around margins as far forwards as about mesothorax; others present medially on thorax. Trilocular pores evenly distributed on dorsum and venter. Discoidal pores minute, sparse. Dorsal oral collar ducts of 2 sizes, mixed across segments, both types narrower than a trilocular pore; ventral ducts similar to those on dorsum: large type fairly abundant around margins as far torward as mesothorax; small type present medially across thoracic and abdominal segments and mingling with large-type ducts around margins.

DISTRIBUTION. Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Palaearctic: Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In Iran, N. viridis occurs in Bushehr, Fars, Hormozgan, Khouzestan, and Sistan & Balouchestan. It is known from 44 plant families worldwide (Ben-Dov et al., 2012).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Bushehr: Borazjan, Kaiiz, 2 adult Ƥ, on Tamarix sp. ( Tamaricaceae ), 29.vii. 2001; Borazjan, Talheh, 7 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sinensis ( Rutaceae ), 23.vii. 2001 (Fasihi); Genaveh, 1 adult Ƥ, on Ziziphus spina-christi ( Rhamnaceae ), 21.x. 2001. Fars. Darab, 6 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sp., 1.i. 2007, 1150 m. (G. Amin); Darab, Bakhtajerd, 5 adult Ƥ, on Morus alba ( Moraceae ), 1.i. 2006, 1120 m. (G. Amin); Darab, Fasarood, 1 adult Ƥ, on Z. spina-christi , M. alba , 1.i. 2006, 1100 m. (G. Amin); Darab, Roodbal, 5 adult Ƥ,.on Z. spina –christi, 26.iv. 2000; Fasa, 5 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sp., 1.i. 2006 (G. Amin); Jahrom, 2 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sp., 4 adult Ƥ, M. alba 2002 (Zibaii); Khafr, 5 adult Ƥ, on C. sinensis , 25.vii. 2001 (Fallahzadeh); Shiraz, 3 adult Ƥ, on Ulmus sp. ( Ulmaceae ), 30.x. 1997; Shiraz, 2 adult Ƥ, on C. bigaradia , 4 adult Ƥ, Nerium oleander ( Apocynaceae ), 1 adult Ƥ, M. alba , 7.viii. 2008 (Ghanbari); Shiraz, on 2 adult Ƥ, C. sinensis , 12.i. 2002 (Fallahzadeh). Hormozgan: Gheshm Island, Band-e Hajali, 3 adult Ƥ, on Prosopis spicigera ( Fabaceae ), 7.iii. 2001; Larak Island, 4 adult Ƥ, on Z. spina-christi , 2.xi. 2002. Kerman: Jiroft, 8 adult Ƥ, on Z. spina-christi , 8.v. 2011 (Ranjbar). Khouzestan: Ahvaz, Citrus sp., 2 adult Ƥ, M. alba , 1.iv. 1995; Andimeshk, 4 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sp., 2003 (Jemsi & Gobeiti); Dezful, Safiabad, 7 adult Ƥ, on C. bigaradia , 20 adult Ƥ, on Z. spina-christi ; Hafttapeh, 6 adult Ƥ, Citrus sp., 7.vii. 2003 (Jemsi & Gobeiti); Omidiyeh, Chahsalem, 3 adult Ƥ, on Tamarix sp., 3.xi. 2003, 159 m.; Shoushtar, 2 adult Ƥ, C. bigaradia , 27.ix. 2005, 79m. Sistan & Balouchestan: Chabahar, Goater, 2 adult Ƥ, on Avecennia officinalis ( Acanthaceae ), 30.v. 2001; Chabahar, Negour, Beris, on 1 adult Ƥ, Z. spina –christi, 1.iv. 2009; Saravan, Jalgh, 3 adult Ƥ, on C sinensis , 28.iv. 1995; Zabol, Jazinak, 1 adult Ƥ, Tamarix sp., 29.x. 2004, 500 m.

COMMENTS. N. viridis is fairly common throughout much of southern Iran, and is undoubtedly one of the most important pests on citrus trees in Fars, Bushehr, Khouzestan and Sistan & Balouchestan, but also attacks numerous other plant species, often causing considerable damage. This species was probably introduced from Egypt in 1942 (Kiriukhin, 1947). Asadeh & Mosaddegh (1991) reported this species from Khouzestan on citrus , causing severe damage on trees in urban areas. These authors also studied the natural enemies and have introduced some into Iran: Hyperaspia polita Weise, Nephus sp. nr. fenestratus (Sahlberg), N. includens (Kirsch) , ( Coleoptera : Coccinellidae ), Dicrodiplosis manihoti Harris ( Diptera : Cecidomyiidae ), Anagyrus agraensis Saraswat, A. aligarhensis Agarwal and Alam, A. dactylopii (Howard) ( Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae ) and Pachryneuron muscarum (L.) ( Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae ). In addition, Fallahzadeh & Japoshvili (2009) introduced the natrural enemies: Anagyrus agraensis Saraswat, A. mirzai Agarwal & Alam and A. pseudococci (Girault) ( Hymenoptera , Encyrtidae ). The plant family Ulmaceae is a new record for this species.

The accompanying illustration is taken from Williams (2004) with kind permission from the author and the Keeper of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London.

FIGUER 16. Adult female Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) .