Planococcus citri (Risso)

Moghaddam, Masumeh, 2013, A review of the mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae) of Iran, with descriptions of four new species and three new records for the Iranian fauna, Zootaxa 3632 (1), pp. 1-107 : 63-64

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Planococcus citri (Risso)


Planococcus citri (Risso)

( Fig. 35 View FIGURE 35 )

Dorthesia citri Risso, 1813: 416 . Coccus tuliparum Bouché, 1844: 301 . Dactylopius alaterni Signoret, 1875 a: 309 . Dactylopius cyperi Signoret, 1875 a: 314 . Dactylopius robiniae Signoret, 1875 a: 322 . Lecanium phyllococcus Ashmead, 1879: 160 . Dactylopius brevispinus Targioni Tozzetti, 1881: 137 . Dactylopius destructor Comstock, 1881: 342 . Dactylopius secretus Hempel, 1900: 387 . Phenacoccus spiriferus Hempel, 1900: 389 . Pseudococcus citri coleorum Marchal, 1908: 236 . Pseudococcus citri phenacocciformis Brain, 1915: 116 . Planococcoides cubanensis Ezzat & McConnell, 1956: 53 . Planococcus citricus Ezzat & McConnell, 1956: 69 . Planococcus cucurbitae Ezzat & McConnell, 1956: 71 .

DIAGNOSIS. Body of adult female oval. Antennae 8 segmented. Legs well developed. Translucent pores present on hind coxa and tibia. Cerarii numbering 18 pairs, each bearing 2 conical setae, except for preocular pairs each sometimes with 1–3 conical setae. Circulus normally quadrate, divided by an intersegmental line. Both pairs of ostioles well developed. Dorsal setae flagellate, longest on abdominal segment VII. Ventral setae flagellate, longer than dorsal setae. Cisanal setae shorter than anal ring setae. Multilocular disc pores present on venter only, in rows across abdominal segment IV and posterior segments, those on posterior edges of abdominal segments IV–VII present in more or less single rows, always a few present on margins, but pores absent from abdomen anterior to segment IV. Trilocular pores evenly distributed on dorsum and venter. Discoidal pores sparse on both dorsum and venter. Dorsal oral collar ducts without apparent rims, larger than ventral ducts, often present next to some cerarii; ventral oral collar ducts of 2 sizes: small ducts across median areas of abdominal segments, and larger ducts around margins includings head and thorax, and scattered in median area of thorax.

DISTRIBUTION. Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Palaearctic: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbijan, Bulgaria, China, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In Iran, P. c i t r i occurs in Fars, Gilan, Khouzestan, Markazi, Mazandaran and Tehran. It is known from 69 plant families worldwide (Ben-Dov et al., 2012).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. Fars: Firouzabad, 2 adult Ƥ, on Fraxinus excelsior ( Oleaceae ), 28.x. 1997; Shiraz, 2 adult Ƥ, on F. excelsior , 28.x. 1997, Shiraz, 22 adult Ƥ, on Cupressus sp. ( Cupressaceae ), 1.viii. 1967. Gilan: Lahijan, 1 adult Ƥ, on Euphorbia pulcherrima ( Euphorbiaceae ), 28.vii. 2009 (Hoseini); Rasht, 4 adult Ƥ, unknown plant, 8.xi. 2007; Siyahkal, 11 adult Ƥ, unknown plant, 13.xi. 2007 (Pournasir). Khouzestan: Ahvaz, Molla Sani, 4 adult Ƥ, on Ficus sp. ( Ficaceae ) (A sadeh). Markazi: Mahalat, 3 adult Ƥ, on Ficus elastica ( Ficeae ), 10.x. 1994 (Keyhanian). Mazandaran: A mol, 3 adult Ƥ, on Oryza sativa ( Poaceae ), 2008 (Dadpour); Chaboksar, 2 adult Ƥ, on Citrus sinensis ( Rutaceae ), 1993; Chalus, Sardabrood, 6 adult Ƥ, on Strelitzia alba ( Strelitziaceae ), 1.viii. 2002; Kelarabad, 3 adult Ƥ, on Nerium oleander ( Apocynaceae ), 3 adult Ƥ, C. bigaradia , 1993; Noshahr, 8 adult Ƥ, on Chamaerops sp. ( Arecaceae ), 3.v. 2003; Ramsar, 2 adult Ƥ, on Ficus benjamina ( Moraceae ), 4 adult Ƥ, Codiaeum variegatum ( Euphorbiaceae ), 2 adult Ƥ, Cupressus sp., 1993; Salmanshahr, 5 adult Ƥ, on C. variegatum , 5 adult Ƥ, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ( Cupressaceae ) 28.vii. 2002; Tonekabon, 3 adult Ƥ, Unknown Plant, 1993, - 11 m. Tehran: Tehran, 5 adult Ƥ, on C. variegatum , 27.x. 2002 (F. Parsi); 5 adult Ƥ, on Dianthus barbatus ( Caryophyllaceae ), 1.x. 2004; 1 adult Ƥ, on Diospyros kaki ( Ebenaceae ), 26.ix. 2008 (Rezaii); Rey, 4 adult Ƥ, on F. carica , 19.viii. 2006; Tehran, Evin, 1 adult Ƥ, on Adenium obesum ( Apocynaceae ), 10.ii. 1994.

COMMENTS. P. c i t r i is one the most cosmopolitan mealybugs, damaging many outdoor crops in the tropics and subtropics as well as in greenhouses in the temperate regions (Cox, 1989). P. c it r i has 3 or 4 generations per year and can over-winter in all instars in Mazandaran, Iran (Mafi Pashakolaei, 2010). In addition, Goldasteh et al. (2009) have studied the effect of temperature on the life history and population growth of P. c i t r i under laboratory conditions and showed that both the females and males can successfully develope into adult from 15 to 32 ºC and 18 to 32 ºC. All first instars died at 10, 12, and 37 ºC. The highest adult longevity of females and males was obtained at 18 and 25 °C; respectively. The highest fecundity was observed at 23 ºC. The shortest and longest oviposition periods occurred at 32 and 18 ºC; these findings showed citrus mealybug performances to be highly affected by temperature. These temperatures are ideal for development throughout most of Iran. Also, Saboori et al. (2003) found that dult Allothrombium pulvinum Ewing ( Acari : Trombidiidae ) feed on a wide range of prey, and have a preference for the eggs of P. c i t r i and Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell ( Coccidae ). The biology and population parameters of another predator of P. citri , the ladybird Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col., Coccinellidae ) was studied under laboratory conditions (Abdollahi et al., 2010). In addition, the thrips Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin , which belongs to the tribe Aleurodothripini ( Phlaeothripidae : Phlaeothripinae ) has been collected on the leaves of grape infested with P. citri in Zanjan (Mirab-Balou & Xue-Xin, 2012). Fallahzadeh & Japoshvili (2010) introduced Anagyrus dactylopii (Howard) ( Hymenoptera , Encyrtidae ) on P. c it r i.

The plant families Caryophyllaceae , Cupressaceae and Ficeae are new records for P. c it r i.

The accompanying illustraton is taken from Cox (1989) with kind permission from the Keeper of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London.