Buxus madagascarica Baill.

Schatz, George E. & Lowry Ii, Porter P., 2002, A synoptic revision of the genus Buxus L. (Buxaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Adansonia (3) 24 (2), pp. 179-196 : 191-193

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Buxus madagascarica Baill.


7. Buxus madagascarica Baill.

Mon. Buxac. 65. 1859. — Buxella madagascarica (Baill.) van Tiegh., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. VIII , 5: 326 (1897). — Notobuxus madagascarica (Baill.) Phillips, J. S. African Bot. 9: 140 (1943). — Type: du Petit Thouars s.n., Madagascar, without precise locality, fl. (holo-, P!; iso-, K!, P!).

Buxus madagascarica as here circumscribed is a shrub to small tree that occurs at low elevation along the east coast of Madagascar, mostly in littoral forest on sand, but occasionally on lateritic substrate, and rarely at higher elevations (Marojejy PN) on weathered quartzite sands, with a disjunct population on the upper slopes and summit (400-594 m) of Mt. Choungui on Mayotte in the Comoro archipelago (Fig. 3). Buxus madagascarica can be distinguished from B. monticola (with which it often shares elliptic, glossy leaves with revolute margins) by its completely glabrous stems and leaves. It differs from B. angustifolia in having ovate to elliptic leaves that are shiny on the upper surface and have evident secondary and tertiary venation. Leaf size varies considerably in B. madagascarica , from over 6 cm in length in the humid littoral forest along the east coast to less than 2 cm in length in drier littoral forest southwest of Ft. Dauphin at Vinanibe.

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Madagascar: Ramidensinala; Mayotte: Hazourountroun, Kani kaly.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — With an Extent of Occurrence of c. 53,850 km 2 and an Area of Occupancy of 1,500 km 2, Buxus madagascarica is known from 15 localities, and thus falls just short of the criteria necessary to confer threatened status. However, given the highly fragmented nature and continuing loss of littoral forest along the east coast of Madagascar, it is likely that B. madagascarica will qualify in the near future, and thus is here assigned a preliminary status of Near Threatened (NT).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR, Prov. Antsiranana: Humbert 23438, Marojejy PN; Razafimandimbison 266, Marojejy PN. Prov. Fianarantsoa: Bosser 18753, Vangaindrano; McPherson 18322, Mahabo; Rabevohitra 3776 (=Service Forestier 35366), 3799 (=Service Forestier 35389), Mahabo; Service Forestier 14675, Nosy Varika. Prov. Toamasina: Cremers 2315, Foulpointe; Debray 1824, W of Foulpointe; Lowry 3980, Ambila- Lemaitso STF; Perrier de la Bâthie 13275, Tampina; Rakotozafy 1140, Analabe-Foulpointe; Service Forestier 18060, Ambila-Lemaitso STF; Service Forestier 22088, W of Foulpointe, 23804, Sahavolamenabe; Service Forestier 29899, Ambila- Lemaitso STF; Service Forestier 34156, 34232, Foulpointe. Prov. Toliara: Faber-Langendoen 2249, Mandena STF; Faliniaina 33, Sainte-Luce; Humbert 20792, 20794, Vinanibe; Service Forestier 22297, Vinanibe; Service Forestier 34532, Sainte-Luce; Service Forestier 35298, Mandena STF; Service Forestier s.n., Bemangidy. — MAYOTTE: Labat 3340, Choungui; Pascal 213, 299, 564, Choungui; Pignal 1875, Choungui.

8. Buxus monticola G.E. Schatz & Lowry , sp. nov.

Buxus madagascarica subsp. sambiranensis H. Perrier ,

Fl. Madagascar 113: 4 (1952), nomen inval., non

rite publ. sine Latin; syn. nov.

Haec species a Buxo madagascarica Baill. trichomatibus erectis brevibus caulem juvenilem petioli margines et laminae foliaris costam supra prope basem obtegentibus distinguitur.

TYPUS. — Malcomber & Rakotomalala 2610, Madagascar, Prov. Antsiranana, Manongarivo RS, Bekolosy, 14°02’S, 48°18’E, 1000-1200 m, 4 Dec. 1993, fl., y.fr. (holo-, GoogleMaps MO!; iso-, G!, K!, P!, TAN!).

Shrub or tree to 10 m tall. Stems with minute, erect trichomes, sometimes glabrescent. Leaves subcoriaceous to coriaceous, often corrugated, i.e., longitudinally convex on either side of the midrib, 1.2-3.3(-8) × 0.7-2.1(-4.3) cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or rhombic, glossy, apex acute to rarely rounded, base acute to cuneate and decurrent along stem, margins strongly revolute, often with minute, erect trichomes toward the base, midrib slightly raised above and below, drying tan to yellowish and contrasting with green blade, with minute, erect trichomes above toward the base, sometimes glabrescent, venation weakly brochidodromous, 7-11 secondary veins per side, slightly impressed above or obscure, the tertiary venation densely reticulate and slightly raised above or obscure; petioles to 1 mm or leaves subsessile, with minute, erect trichomes along margins, sometimes glabrescent. Inflorescences axillary; male flowers 1- 3 per axil, subtended by 8 strongly keeled minute bracts, sepals 1-1.2 × 0.5-0.8 mm, broadly ovate, apex rounded, margins ciliate, anthers 2-3 × 0.5 mm; female flowers solitary on terminal portion of stems, subtended by 8 strongly keeled minute bracts, sepals 2.5-4 × 1.2-2.8 mm, lanceolate, apex acute, keeled, margins ciliate, ovary 2 × 1.5 mm, styles 5 mm, strongly recurved. Fruits 4-7 × 4.5-7 mm, globose, stylar remnants 1.5-3 mm long, stout; seeds 5 × 2 mm, black, shiny. — Fig. 8 View Fig .

Buxus monticola is a shrub to small tree that occurs in subhumid to montane evergreen forest from Manongarivo RS east to Tsararatanana RNI and Marojejy PN, and then at scattered localities from Tsinjoarivo as far south as Lalanandro north of Ihosy, from 800 to over 2000 m (Fig. 3). It can be distinguished from B. madagascarica by the short, erect trichomes covering the young stems, margins of the petiole, midrib above especially toward the base, and sometimes the margins of the blade toward the base.

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Hazombato, Pily pily vohitry, Somisika.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — With an Area of Occupancy of 700 km 2 within an Extent of Occurrence of c. 66,000 km 2, and a highly fragmented population known from less than 10 localities, Buxus monticola is assigned a preliminary status of Vulnerable (VU B2ab).

PARATYPES. — MADAGASCAR, Prov. Antananarivo :

Service Forestier 1028, Ambatotsipihina-Tsinjoarivo,

[19°31’S, 47°21’E], 19 Nov. 1949, fr. ( P, TAN, TEF). Prov. Antsiranana: Gautier & Derleth 2592, Manongarivo RS, Bekolosy , 14°02’S, 48°18’E, 1200 m GoogleMaps , 28 Feb. 1996, fr. ( G, MO, P, TAN); Gautier & Be 2917, same locality, 1240 m GoogleMaps , 28 Feb. 1996, fr. ( G, MO, P, TAN, TEF); Humbert & Saboureau 31909, partie occidentale du massif de Marojejy (Nord-Est), de la vallée de l’Ambatoharanana, au bassin supérieur de l’Antsahaberoka , [14°28’S, 49°34’E], 1700 m GoogleMaps , 15-25 Nov. 1959, fl. ( MO, P); Lewis, Rasoavimbahoaka & Rastefanonirina 1194, Marojejy PN, 14°26’56”S, 49°43’58”E, 1900-2130 m GoogleMaps , 30 Sep. 1994, fr. ( MO, P, TAN); Malcomber, Hutcheon, Razafimanantsoa & Zjhra 1464, Manongarivo RS, Antsatrotro, SE face, 14°05’S, 48°23’E, 1700-1760 m GoogleMaps , 12 Apr. 1992, fr. ( K, MO, TAN); Perrier de la Bâthie 4609, massif de Manongarivo [RS], [14°02’S, 48°21’30”E], 1600 m GoogleMaps , May 1909, fr. ( P); Perrier de la Bâthie 5949, same locality GoogleMaps , Apr. 1909, fr. ( P); Rakotomalaza 44, Manongarivo RS, Bekolosy , 14°04’S, 48°17’E, 1000- 1480 m GoogleMaps , Apr. 1993, fr. ( G, K, MO, P, TAN); Service Forestier (Capuron) 27042bis, Centre: massif du Tsaratanana [RNI]: haut bassin de Beandrarezina (Andranomena), affluent rive gauche de la Mahavavy, [13°49’S, 48°44’E], 2000-2300 m GoogleMaps , 11 Nov. 1966, st. ( P, TEF); van der Werff & McPherson 13480, Manongarivo RS, above village of Ambodisakaona , 14°05’S, 48°20’E, 1100 m GoogleMaps , 16 Oct. 1994, fl. ( K, G, MO, P, TAN). Prov. Fianarantsoa: Ouest: Service Forestier (Capuron) 23522, versant oriental du massif de Lalanandro, au nord d’Ihosy , [22°19’S, 46°07’30”E], 800-1000 m GoogleMaps , 9 Oct. 1964, fl. ( MO, P, TEF); Service Forestier (Capuron) 23857, Centre: massif du Vohibe-Antoetra au S-SE d’Ambositra , [20°48’S, 47°20’E], 1600-1869 m GoogleMaps , 1 Dec. 1964, fl. ( K, MO, P, TEF) .


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Buxus madagascarica Baill.

Schatz, George E. & Lowry Ii, Porter P. 2002

Notobuxus madagascarica (Baill.)

Phillips 1943: 140

Buxella madagascarica (Baill.) van Tiegh., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. VIII

Tiegh. 1897: 326
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