Polylepis canoi W.Mend., Rev. Peruana Biol. 12(1): 104-106. 2005.

Boza Espinoza, Tatiana Erika & Kessler, Michael, 2022, A monograph of the genus Polylepis (Rosaceae), PhytoKeys 203, pp. 1-274 : 1

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Polylepis canoi W.Mend., Rev. Peruana Biol. 12(1): 104-106. 2005.


8. Polylepis canoi W.Mend., Rev. Peruana Biol. 12(1): 104-106. 2005.

Figs 29 View Figure 29 , 30 View Figure 30


Peru. Cusco: La Convención, Cordillera del Vilcabamba , 30 km caminando de la Hacienda Luisiana y del Río Apurimac, 3400 m, 17 Jul 1968, T.R. Dudley 11180 (holotype: MO!; isotypes: NA, F!) .


Trees 4-7(9) m tall. Leaves strongly congested at the branch tips, imparipinnate with 2-3(4) pairs of lateral leaflets, obtrullate in outline, (4.0-)7.9-9.4 × (4.2-)6.7-7.5 cm; rachises densely sericeous, points of leaflet attachment with a tuft of long, straight yellowish hairs, with ferruginous resin at leaflet insertion; stipular sheaths apically acute with spurs, glabrous in both surfaces; leaflets obovate in outline, second pair from the terminal leaflet the largest, one of this pair (2.4-)3.4-3.9 × (0.8-)1.1-1.5 cm; margin entire to slightly serrate with 4-6 teeth, coriaceous, apically slightly emarginate, basally unequally cordate; upper leaflet surfaces glabrous or with sparse sericeous hairs; lower leaflet surfaces densely sericeous with yellowish hairs 1.3-1.7 mm long. Inflorescences pendant, 8.2-14.5 cm long, bearing 12-17(26) flowers; floral bracts 7.0-15.8 mm long, narrowly triangular, densely sericeous on the outer surface; rachises sericeous. Flowers 7.8-11.2 mm diam.; sepals 3-4, ovate, green, densely sericeous outside; stamens 13-15, anthers orbicular, with a dense tuft of straight white hairs on the upper half; styles fimbriate, 2.4-3.8 mm long. Fruits turbinate, with variable numbers and placement of flattened spines, densely sericeous; 5.2 × 7.5 mm including spines. Diploid.

Distribution, habitat and ecology.

Polylepis canoi is distributed from the central-south-eastern Peruvian Andes to the central Bolivian Andes (Fig. 41 View Figure 41 ). The species occurs in wet Andean Forest at 3150-4500 m elevation. It co-occurs with P. argentea and P. serrata in the Cordillera Vilcabamba in Peru, where it forms large pure stands and also grows intermixed with P. argentea ( Boyle 2001). In Bolivia, where it was long known as P. sericea , it is only known from a few scattered localities where it has been recorded co-occurring with P. lanata ( Kessler 1995b). In Peru, maximum tree height decreases from 9 m at 3700 m to 4 m at 4250 m elev. ( Toivonen et al. 2011; as P. sericea ). Along the same elevational gradient, the proportion of vegetative reproduction increases from 0% to 70% ( Toivonen et al. 2011).

Conservation status.

The EOO is estimated as 98,800 km2 and AOO as 84 km2. The species is known from 17 locations in Peru and Bolivia. In Peru, it has been categorized as EN (B1ab(iii)) ( León-Yañez et al. 2006) and in Bolivia, as EN (B1ab(i,ii,iii)) ( Arrázola et al. 2012, as P. sericea ). Agricultural expansion, logging, cattle, burning of surrounding grasslands and mining are threats for this species ( Arrázola et al. 2012). We assess Polylepis canoi as Endangered (B1a+B2a, C1).


Polylepis canoi seems morphologically closest to P. ochreata and P. sericea . However, it has obovate and larger (2.4-3.9 × 0.8-1.5 cm) leaflets than the other two species, which have elliptic and smaller (1.8-2.7 × 0.5-1.0 cm) leaflets. Additionally, P. canoi has longer hairs (1.3-1.7 mm) than the other two species (0.7-1.2 mm).

This species was treated as endemic to Peru by Mendoza (2005) when he described it. Boza Espinoza et al. (2019) revised its distribution to extend it to Bolivia. The specimens from Puno (Peru) and La Paz and Cochabamba (Bolivia) were previously determined as P. sericea (e.g., Kessler 1995a). Furthermore, the specimen cited by Schmidt-Lebuhn et al. (2006a) as the first record of P. pauta for Bolivia was re-identified as P. canoi by Boza Espinoza et al. (2019).

Specimens examined.

Bolivia. Cochabamba: Chapare, Mayka Mayu , 17°12'S, 065°58'W, s.d., Hensen 2248 (BOLV, LPB, MO!, TEX); Maycamayu, ca. 60 Km N Sacaba, 17°12'S, 065°58'W, 3300 m, 11 August 1991, Kessler 2874 (GOET!); 2875 (GOET!); 2877 (GOET!); 2878 (AAU!); 2879 (GOET!, MO!); 2880 (GOET!) GoogleMaps . La Paz: Bautista Saavedra, Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba, bajada de Waricunca, mas allá de Chaka, por el antiguo camino Sorapata-Apolo , 14°53'19"S, 068°47'04"W, 3550 m, 28 March 2009, Fuentes 13589 (BOLV, LPB, MA, MO!, USZ); Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba , sector Chaka, bosque continuo al SE del campamento cerca de la cueva, por el antiguo camino Laji Sorapata-Apolo, 14°53'32"S, 068°47'12"W, 3461 m, 30 March 2009, Fuentes 13634 (LPB, MO!, QCA!, USZ); 13639 (BOLV, LPB, MO!, QCA!, USZ); Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba. Bajada de Wuaricunca , más allá de Chaka, por el antiguo camino Hilo-Hilo - Apolo, 14°53'11"S, 068°47'04"W, 3550 m, 06 April 2009, Fuentes 13897 (BOLV, LPB, MA, MO!, QCA!, USZ); Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi , Hilo Hilo. Sobre el Rio Tumamayu en la localidad de Laji Sorapata, 14°53'14"S, 068°51'52"W, 4182 m, 10 April 2009, Loza 635A (LPB, MA, MO!); 645 (LPB, MO!, QCA!, USZ); Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba , Hilo Hilo, Juchuy Queñua a medio día de Laji Sorapata, 14°54'52"S, 068°48'08"W, 3879 m, 16 April 2009, Loza 757 (LPB, MO!); 775 (BOLV, LPB, MA, MO!, USZ); 788 (LPB, MO!, QCA!, USZ); Chaka Machay(Laji), 14°53'S, 068°47'W, 3300 m, 14 September 2002, Zenteno 1507 (LPB). Franz Tamayo, Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba , Keara bajo, 14°42'09"S, 069°04'35"W, 3500 m, 21 November 2007, Araujo 4078 (LPB, MO!); Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Apolobamba , Hilo Hilo, Chaka, sobre la senda hacia Amantala, 14°53'16"S, 068°47'16"W, 3576 m, 16 August 2009, Cayola 3417 (BOLV, LPB, MA, MO!, USZ); Parque Nacional Madidi, entre Queara y Mojos, sector Mosquito, 14°39'37"S, 068°57'54"W, 3400 m, 26 February 2008, Fuentes 12028 (BOLV, LPB, MO!, QCA!, USZ); Parque Nacional Madidi, Puina Viejo, ca. 3 km río abajo por camino al W del río, 14°34'58"S, 069°06'24"W, 3316 m, 21 June 2005, Fuentes 8549 (LPB, MO!); Parque Nacional Madidi, Hilo Hilo, arriba de la mina Kanupata en la localidad de Laji Sorapata, 14°52'28"S, 068°51'15"W, 4182 m, 11 April 2009, Loza 671 (BOLV, HSB, LPB, MA, MO!, NY, QCA!, USZ); Bosque de Quenuari , 14°54'31"S, 069°01'07"W, 4275 m, 28 September 2006, Palabral 489 (LPB); Senda Pelechuco-Mojo, sector Tambo Quemado, a media hora del campamento siguiendo senda Pelechuco Moxos, 14°41'03"S, 068°58'22"W, 3455 m, 01 May 2003, Paniagua 5710 (LPB, MA, MO!). Larecaja, bosque de a localidad de Hirola, pasando Lipichi, 15°26'41"S, 068°10'57"W, 3881 m, 05 November 2008, Palabral 705 (LPB). Murillo, 8 km after Palca on the road to Iquico, 4000 m, 10 November 1967, Vuilleumier 342 (MO!) GoogleMaps .

Peru. Cusco: La Convención, Cordillera de Vilcabamba , above Camp 7, ca. 30 km walking distance from Hacienda Luisiana and the Apurimac River, 12°30'S, 074°30'W, 3400 m, 17 July 1968, Dudley 11180 (F!, MO!, NA); usually on eastern slopes ca. 30 km walking distance NE from Hacienda Luisiana and the Apurimac River, 12°30'S, 073°30'W, 3400 m, 19 July 1968, Dudley 11221 (F!, USM!) GoogleMaps . Junín: Jauja, Dist. Molinos, Comunidad Curimarca, Jucha, 11°33'53"S, 075°18'58"W, 3893 m, 10 November 2016, Ames s.n (Z!). Satipo, Dist. de Pampa Hermosa, Comunidad de Toldopampa, Tasta, 11°26'08"S, 074°53'58"W, 3754 m, 04 October 2016, Ames s.n (Z!); Junin / Cusco Prov. Satipo/ La Convención, Cordillera Vilcabamba. Rio Ene , slope near summit of divide, 11°39'30"S, 073°40'02"W, 3350 m, 07 June 1997, Boyle 4151 (USM!) GoogleMaps . Puno: Limbani, Huancasayani, on road to Limbani just east of Abra Aricoma , 14°13'S, 069°42'W, 3750 m, 28 March 1987, Boertmann 129 (AAU!, QCA!); Huancasayani between Abra Aricoma and Limbani, 14°13'S, 069°42'W, 3750 m, 28 March 1987, Brandbyge 511 (AAU!) GoogleMaps .