Ehretia cymosa Thonn.

Miller, James S., 2002, A revision of Ehretia (Boraginaceae) for Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Adansonia (3) 24 (2), pp. 137-157: 143-146

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5180490

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7F795138-FFB2-FFAA-FD2D-FABBAA9DFB9F

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Ehretia cymosa Thonn.
status

 

2. Ehretia cymosa Thonn.  

Thonn. in Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Fuin. Pl. 129 (1827). — Type: Thonning 89, Ghana, s.loc. (holo-, C; iso-, FT, P-JU!)   .

Shrub or tree to 10 m tall, the bark grey, smooth, the branches spreading and drooping, stems pubescent to glabrous; leaves alternate, deciduous; blades elliptic-ovate to ovate-oblong, the widest point below the middle, 4-14 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, the apex acuminate, the base rounded to cordate or obtuse, the margin entire, the adaxial surface glabrous, the abaxial surface usually glabrous except sometimes pubescent along the mid-rib, secondary veins, and vein axils, venation brochidodromous, the midrib impressed on the adaxial surface, raised on the abaxial surface, the secondary veins 3-7, the tertiary venation reticulate; petioles 12-35 mm long, glabrous, canaliculate on the adaxial surface. Inflorescences terminal, cymose, to 8(-13) cm wide, the branches glabrous to puberulent, the hairs all simple; flowers bisexual; calyx campanulate, 2- 2.5 mm long, the 5 lobes lanceolate, 0.5-1.2 mm long, acute at the apex, puberulent to glabrous and ciliate on the margin; corolla white, tubular with spreading to reflexed lobes, 4-8 mm long, the tube 1.5-3 mm, the 5 lobes oblong, 1.5-4 mm long; stamens 5, prominently exserted, the filaments 4-5.5 mm long, the upper 2.5-3.5 mm free, glabrous, the anthers obloid, 0.8-1.2 mm long; ovary ovoid, c. 1 mm long, the style 3-4.3 mm long, shortly bifid, glabrous, the stigmas capitate. Fruits borne in the persistent calyx, orange, red, or black at maturity, globose to ovoid, 3-5 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, the endocarp bony, breaking into 4 pyrenes at maturity, these 2.5-3.5 mm long, 2- 2.5 mm wide, ridged on the outer surface.

Ehretia cymosa   is very distinct and easily recognized from the other Malagasy species by its large leaves, 4-14 cm long, that are widest below the middle. There has been much debate about the recognition of varieties of E. cymosa   (see V ERDCOURT 1991), but collections from Madagascar all have calyces 2-2.5 mm long, but have either glabrous or puberulent inflorescence axes indicating that these are probably E. cymosa var. divaricata (Baker) Brenan   if the varieties are recognized.

DISTRIBUTION. — Ehretia cymosa   is widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone to Ethiopia and south to Mozambique ( MARTINS 1990; VERDCOURT 1991). In Madagascar it is primarily a tree of coastal habitats, along rivers, and on northern islands (Fig. 4). The Malagasy populations are most frequently found at low elevations (except for RN 11488 from 800 m at Antam-

45E 50E

15S

20S

25S

Fig. 3. — Distributions of the endemic species of Ehretia   , mapped on the bioclimate zones of Madagascar (after CORNET 1974; see SCHATZ 2000). E. australis   (O), E. decaryi   (Δ), E. meyersii   (·), E. phillipsonii   (•), E. seyrigii   ().

bohobe), whereas in East Africa E. cymosa   is primarily an upland plant.

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Andiambavy (infusion of leaves used against fever), Havezo, Hazodrahintiky, Malazovoafitetika, Malazovoany, Mavoampotaka, Refeko, Resavatsy, Sarivatoana, Tafitao, Tamatorantsavoka, Tokika, Tsikataoka, Voarafitra. There appears to be little consistency in the use of the majority of these vernacular names and only Malazovoafitetika and Malazovoany are repeated on multiple collections.

45E 50E

Fig. 4. — Distributions of the non-endemic species of Ehretia   , mapped on the bioclimate zones of Madagascar (after CORNET 1974; see SCHATZ 2000). E. cymosa   (Δ), E. obtusifolia   (O).

DISTRIBUTION. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern. Ehretia cymosa   is a common widespread species that apparently persists in disturbed areas. It is known from relatively large numbers of collections, many recent, and it is widespread and common outside of Madagascar.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR: Appert 810, Prov. Toliara, 10 km N of Manja , 21 o 25’S, 44 o 20’E, fr., 16 Nov. 1977 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Baron 6470, s.loc., fl., s.date ( P!)   ; Baron 6927, s.loc., fl., s.date ( K!)   ; Blackburn 186, s.loc., fr., s.date ( K!)   ; Boivin 1801, Prov. Toamasina, Ile St. Marie, 16 o 53’S, 49 o 53’E, fl., Mar. 1847 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Boivin 2490, Prov. Antsiranana, baie de Rigny, 12 o 26’S, 49 o 32’E, fl., fr., Oct. 1848 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Catat s.n., Prov. Mahajanga , route de Majunga, fl., Oct. 1889 ( P!)   ; Chapelier s.n., s.loc., fl., s.date ( P!)   ; Cours 1988, forêt d’Analamihilana, 850 m, fr., 27 Dec. 1944 ( MO!, P!)   ; Cours 2919, Prov. Toamasina, Ambila Lemaitso, 3-5 m, 18 o 49’S, 49 o 08’E, fr., 9 Sep. 1946 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Cowan s.n., Mataniro to Marosika , fl., Oct.-Nov. 1884 ( BM!, P!)   ; Decary 1108, Prov. Mahajanga, Maromandia, 14°12’S, 48°05’E, fl., 9 Oct. 1922 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 1169, Prov. Mahajanga, Maromandia, 14°12’S, 48°05’E, fl., 22 Oct. 1922 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 1216, Prov. Mahajanga, Maromandia, 14°12’S, 48°05’E, fl., 22 Oct. 1922 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 8267, Prov. Mahajanga, Maintirano, 18 o 04’S, 44 o 02’E, fl., 31 Aug. 1930 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 15615, Prov. Mahajanga, Besalampy, 16 o 45’S, 44 o 30’E, fl., fr., 13 Sep. 1940 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 15652, Prov. Mahajanga, Besalampy, 16 o 45’S, 44 o 30’E, fr., 13 Sep. 1940 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 15777, Prov. Mahajanga, dist. de Soalala, Réserve No. 8, Namoroka , 16 o 26’S, 45 o 22’E, fl., 16 Sep. 1940 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 15778, Prov. Mahajanga, dist. de Soalala, Réserve No. 8, Namoroka , 16 o 26’S, 45 o 22’E, fl., 16 Sep. 1940 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Derleth 148, Prov. Antsiranana, Analanantsoa, Ambodisakoana, bords de la Manongarivo, 40 m, 14 o 05’S, 48 o 20’E, fr., 28 Aug. 1994 ( P!, TAN!) GoogleMaps   ; Du Petit Thouars s.n., s.loc., fl., s.date ( P!)   ; Du Puy, Du Puy, & Raharilala 382, Prov. Mahajanga, Boina region, c. 15 km NW of the village of Vilanandro , Réserve Nationale Intégrale of Namoroka , 140 m, 16 o 26’S, 45 o 21’E, fl., 26 Sep. 1989 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Greve 89, s.loc., fl., s.date ( BM!, MO!, P!)   ; 259, s.loc., s.date, fl., fr. ( MO!); Hildebrandt 3025, Prov. Antsiranana, Anorotsangana, 13 o 55’S, 47 o 55’E, fl., June 1879 ( BM!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Homolle 186, Prov. Toamasina, lac Alaotra, entre Menasaka et Ambodiriana , bords du Maningory, 17 o 22’S, 48 o 48’E, fl., fr., Dec. 1944 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Homolle 1988, forêt d’Analamihilana , fr., 27 Dec. 1944 ( P!)   ; Humbert   & Capuron 23960, Prov. Antsiranana, vallée inférieure de l’Androranga, affluent de la Bemarivo, aux environs d’Antongondriha , 100-250 m, 14°12’S, 49°52’E, fl., 1-24 Nov. 1951 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   & Cours 17491, Prov. Toamasina, Mont Ankaraoka au sud-est du lac Alaotra , 1200-1400 m, 17 o 48’S, 48 o 32’E, fl., Oct. 1937 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Lantz s.n., Prov. Fianarantsoa, Manakara , 22 o 09’S, 48 o 01’E, fl., 1881 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 1107, Prov. Mahajanga, environs de Madirovalo, 16 o 26’S, 46 o 32’E, fl., fr., Oct. 1900 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 10219, Prov. Mahajanga, Marovoay , 16 o 58’S, 44 o 35’E, fl., July 1908 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 10226, Prov. Antsiranana, vallée du Sambirano, 13 o 55’S, 48 o 38’E, fl., May 1909 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 10258, Prov. Antsiranana, Bemarivo près Sambava, 14 o 09’S, 50 o 09’E, fl., fr., Nov. 1912 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 10288, Prov. Mahajanga, Andara, plateau d’Ankarana, Boina , 17 o 13’S, 46 o 16’E, fl., Sep. 1902 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perrier de la Bâthie 18722, Prov. Antsiranana, Nosy Mitsio , 12 o 54’S, 48 o 36’E, fl., Oct. 1932 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perville 319, Prov. Antsiranana, Nosy Mitsio, 12 o 54’S, 48 o 36’E, fl., 9 Nov. 1840 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perville 409, Prov. Antsiranana, Nosy Be, 13 o 18’S, 48 o 16’E, fr., 18 Jan. 1841 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Perville 2085bis, Prov. Antsiranana, Nosy Be, 13°18’S, 48°16’E, fl., 1849 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 74, Prov. Mahajanga, Réserve Naturelle 8, Namoroka , 16 o 26’S, 45 o 22’E, fl., fr., 18 Oct. 1957 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 2043, Prov. Mahajanga, Ankarafantsika, 16 o 10’S, 47 o 05’E, fl., 9 Nov. 1950 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 2181 (Randrianasolo), Prov. Mahajanga, Soalala, Ampiliranjirika , 16 o 21’S, 45 o 17’E, fl., 24 Nov. 1950 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 3026 (Rakoto), Prov. Antsiranana, Réserve Naturelle 6, Marovaliha , 13 o 24’S, 48 o 19’E, fl., 2 Nov. 1951 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 5641(Saboureau), Prov. Mahajanga, Réserve Naturelle 8, Namoroka , 16 o 26’S, 45 o 22’E, fl., 8 Sep. 1953 ( P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 6289, Prov. Antsiranana, Réserve Naturelle 4, Tsaratanana , 13 o 57’S, 48 o 52’E, fl., 18 Aug. 1954 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 6707, Prov. Mahajanga, Soalala, 16 o 06’S, 45 o 20’E, fl., 1 Sep. 1954 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 8128, Prov. Mahajanga, Soalala, Réserve Naturelle Namoroka , 16 o 06’S, 45 o 20’E, fl., 12 Aug. 1956 ( P!, TAN!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 8138, Prov. Mahajanga, Soalala, 16 o 06’S, 45 o 20’E, fl., 8 Sep. 1956 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 8764, Prov. Mahajanga, Soalala, 16 o 06’S, 45 o 20’E, fl., 15 Jan. 1957 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 11488, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Antambohobe, dist. Ivohibe , 22 o 19’S, 46 o 47’E, fl., 26 Oct. 1961 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 11293, Prov. Toamasina, Ambatondrazaka, 17 o 50’S, 48 o 25’E, fl., 19 Nov. 1960 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN 11957, Antsiranana, Nosy Be, 13 o 24’S, 48 o 19’E, fl., 25 Oct. 1961 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Richard s.n., s.loc., fl., s.date ( P!)   ; Richard 431, s.loc., fl., s.date ( P!)   ; Saboureau 29, Prov. Antsiranana, Beangona-Ambanja, 14 o 03’S, 48 o 42’E, fl., s.date ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 789 (Capuron), Prov. Antsiranana, Réserve Naturelle Marojejy, Antongondriha , vallée de l’Androranga, district de Sambava, fl., fr., 9 Nov. 1950 ( MO!, P!)   ; Service Forestier: SF 2492, Prov. Toamasina, Soanierana Ivongo , 16 o 55’S, 49 o 35’E, fr., 27 Dec. 1949 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 5837, Prov. Antsiranana, Benavony-Ambanja , 13 o 42’S, 48 o 29’E, fl., fr., 3 Oct. 1952 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 6499, Prov. Fianarantsoa , Analalava-Ambohitsara-Vohipeno, 22 o 21’S, 47 o 51’E, fr., 22 Nov. 1952 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 7686, Prov. Mahajanga, Maromandia- Ambanja , 14 o 12’S, 48 o 05’E, fr., 24 Sep. 1953 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 7697, Prov. Antsiranana, Ambanja , 13 o 41’S, 48 o 27’E, fr., 18 Oct. 1953 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 10777, Prov. Mahajanga, Ambondro-Analalava , 50 m, 15 o 01’S, 47 o 16’E, fl., 30 Sep. 1954 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 11118, Prov. Mahajanga, Analalava , 100-411 m, 14 o 49’S, 48 o 15’E, fr., 21 Oct. 1954 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 12396, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Farafangana , 22 o 49’S, 47 o 49’E, fl., 25 Nov. 1954 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 18828 (Capuron), Prov. Mahajanga, forêt d’Ambondro-Ampasy, exploitation Loyseau, Canton d’Antonibe , District d’Analalava , 15 o 01’S, 47 o 16’E, fl., fr., 29 Oct.-3 Nov. 1958 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 20058 (Capuron), Prov. Antsiranana, massif de la montagne d’Ambre, rive gauche de la rivière des Makis entre les Roussettes et la Grande Cascade, 12 o 32’S, 49 o 10’E, fl., 22 Nov. 1958 ( MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 26204, Prov. Mahajanga, forêt de Beandro, Antsalova , 18 o 39’S, 44 o 37’E, fl., 23 Sep. 1966 ( P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 26213, Prov. Mahajanga, Betaboara, Antsalova , 18 o 39’S, 44 o 37’E, fl., 18 Oct. 1966 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF 27106 (Capuron), Prov. Mahajanga, vestige forestier, sur scories basaltiques, au lieu dit Analankeboka , à l’ouest de Bealanana, 14 o 33’S, 48 o 45’E, fl., 20 Nov. 1966 ( MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Ursch 191, Prov. Antsiranana, ravine au Diégo-Suarez, 12 o 18’S, 49 o 21’E, fl., fr., s.date ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   . — COMORES: Boivin s.n., Moheli, fl., Mar. 1850 ( MO!, P!)   ; Boivin 3229, Mayotte, fl., fr., s.date ( MO!, P!)   ; Fauve 1019, Mayotte, fr., 27 Nov. 1989 ( P!)   ; Humblot 380, s.loc., fl., 1884 ( BM!)   ; Humblot 1380, Mayotte, fl., 4 Nov. 1884 ( MO!, P!)   ; Kirk ( Ehretia   4), Mohilla Island , fl., Apr. 1861 ( K!)   ; Labat, Yahaya & Daroueche 3190, Moheli, Djando, Itsamia, Chissiwa Madahani , 30 m, 12 o 22’S, 43 o 52’E, fl., 22 Nov. 1999 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Pascal 97, Mayotte, îlot Bandrele , fl., 2 Oct. 1995 ( P!)   ; Pascal 221, Mayotte, Dapani , fl., 21 Nov. 1995 ( K!, P!)   ; Pascal 726, Mayotte, Pointe Saziley , 100 m, fl., 17 Oct. 1996 ( P!)   ; Pascal 892, Mayotte, Convalescence , 400 m, fr., 19 Feb. 1997 ( P!)   ; Pascal & Halle 678, Mayotte, bord de route, vers trevani, 20 m, fl., fr., 21 Sep. 1996 ( P!)   ; Pobeguin 85, Mayotte, fl., s.date ( MO!, P!)   ; Richard 210, Anjouan, Mohilla , fl., s.date ( P!)   .

C

University of Copenhagen

FT

Centro Studi Erbario Tropicale, Università degli Studi di Firenze

N

Nanjing University

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

BM

Bristol Museum

TAN

Parc de Tsimbazaza

TEF

Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural