Oxynoemacheilus hanae, Freyhof, Jörg & Abdullah, Younis Sabir, 2017

Freyhof, Jörg & Abdullah, Younis Sabir, 2017, Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae), Zootaxa 4238 (1), pp. 73-87: 79-87

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4238.1.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:30B29DAA-9B68-494F-9A00-7E37882C678A

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5620456

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7F3C5672-FF99-2D5D-FF39-BE5D6703E946

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Oxynoemacheilus hanae
status

new species

Oxynoemacheilus hanae   , new species

( Figs. 6–9 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 )

Holotype. ZFMK 103020, male, 57 mm SL; Iraq: stream Zalm south of Taparezina, 35°18'23"N 45°58'14"E; J. Freyhof, H. A. Raza & M. Qadir, 7 Jun 2012. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. FSJF 3359, 22, 46–61 mm SL; same data as holotype   .— FSJF 3641, 63, 34–61 mm SL; Iraq: stream Zalm south of Taparezina, 35°18'23"N 45°58'14"E; J. Freyhof, Y. S. Abdullah & M. Musa, 23 Oct 2016. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Oxynoemacheilus hanae   is distinguished from the other species of Oxynoemacheilus   in the Tigris drainage by a combination of characters, none of them unique. Oxynoemacheilus hanae   belongs to a group of species ( O. bergianus   , O. euphraticus   , O. longipinnis   , O. karunensis   , O. kurdistanicus   , O. parvinae   ) having a suborbital groove in males (vs. absent in O. chomanicus   , O. frenatus   , O. gyndes   , O. kiabii   and O. zagrosensis   ) and a deeply emarginate caudal fin (vs. slightly emarginate or truncate in O. chomanicus   , O. frenatus   , O. gyndes   , O. kiabii   and O. zagrosensis   ).

Oxynoemacheilus hanae   was found in sympatry with O. gyndes   and O. kurdistanicus   ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ) and O. parvinae   is known from the upper Sirvan drainage.

Oxynoemacheilus hanae   is distinguished from O. euphraticus   and O. kurdistanicus   by having no or a very short incision in the upper lip (vs. a deep median incision), a series of dark-brown roundish or ovoid blotches along the midlateral flank (vs. narrow and regularly or irregularly set and shaped bars at least on the flank behind the caudal-fin base), the midlateral blotches not reaching down to ventral side of caudal peduncle (vs. reaching), the midlateral blotches are usually not confluent with the saddles on the back, but often overlapping (vs. bars on the flank behind the dorsal-fin-base usually confluent with saddles on the back). A few individuals of O. hanae   have one or two midlateral blotches being vertically elongated, forming a bar and rarely this bar is then connected to a saddle on the back. Also, O. hanae   has a horizontal series of isolated patches of brown blotches or a row of small, brown spots below the midlateral blotches (vs. lower flank without colour pattern or colour pattern of midlateral flank reaching down to lower flank) and the caudal peduncle is 1.4–1.8 times longer than deep vs. 1.9–2.2 in sympatric O. kurdistanicus   .

Oxynoemacheilus hanae   is distinguished from O. karunensis   by the two black blotches or spots at the caudalfin base usually being invisible in life, indistinct and overlaid by a chevron-shaped, dark-brown or black bar (vs. prominent in life and preserved fishes), the flank below the lateral series of blotches without colour pattern except a longitudinal series of isolated patches of blotches or a row of small dark-brown spots (vs. lower flank with irregularly shaped and set brown blotches forming a continuous pattern with lateral and dorsal flank pattern), lacking minute dark-brown spots on the back, above the lateral midline and the caudal peduncle (vs. present) and having a small but well developed pelvic axillary lobe fully attached to the body (vs. no lobe or lobe rudimentary, shallow and knob-shaped).

Oxynoemacheilus hanae   is distinguished from O. bergianus   , O. longipinnis   and O. parvinae   by having two bold, black blotches or spots on the caudal-fin base, usually overlaid by a chevron-shaped, dark-brown or black bar (vs. no bold, black pattern on the caudal-fin base in O. bergianus   , O. longipinnis   and O. parvinae   ), flank below lateral series of blotches with isolated patches of blotches or a row of small dark-brown spots (vs. lower flank without colour pattern or colour pattern of midlateral flank reaching down to lower flank) and a deeper caudal peduncle (its length 1.4–1.8 times in it depth vs. 1.7–2.2 in O. longipinnis   and 2.3–3.1 in O. bergianus   ).

Description. For general appearance see Figs. 6–9 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 ; morphometric data are provided in Table 3 View TABLE 3 . Middle sized and elongate species with a short and blunt head. Body deepest at dorsal-fin origin or about midline between nape and dorsal-fin origin, depth decreasing almost constant towards caudal-fin base. No hump at nape. Greatest body width at pectoral-fin base. Section of head roundish, flattened on ventral surface. Caudal peduncle compressed laterally, 1.4–1.8 times longer than deep. A small, usually triangular axillary lobe at base of pelvic fin, usually fully attached to body, rarely with free posterior tip. Pelvic-fin origin below first or second branched dorsal-fin ray. Anal-fin origin slightly behind vertical of middle between dorsal- and caudal-fin origins. Pectoral fin reaching approximately 70–90% of distance from pectoral-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic fin not reaching vertical of tip of last dorsal-fin ray when folded down, reaching to anus or to a short distance in front of anus. Anus about 0.5–1.0 eye diameter in front of anal-fin origin. Anal fin not reaching caudal-fin base. No dorsal or ventral adipose crest on caudal peduncle. Margin of dorsal fin concave. Caudal fin deeply emarginate. Largest known specimen 61 mm SL.

Dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays. Anal fin with 5½ branched rays. Caudal fin with 9+8 branched rays. Pectoral fin with 10–11 and pelvic fin with 8 rays. Body covered by embedded scales. Lateral line complete, reaching to caudal-fin base. One or two lateral and one central pores in supratemporal canal. Anterior nostril opening at end of a low, pointed and flap-like tube. Posterior tip of anterior nostril overlapping posterior nostril when folded backwards. A suborbital groove in males. Mouth small, arched ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ). Lips thick, with poorly marked furrows. A deep median interruption in lower lip. No or a very short median incision in upper lip. Processus dentiformis narrow and blunt. No median notch in lower jaw. Barbels long, inner rostral barbel reaching to base of maxillary barbel; outer one reaching to vertical of anterior margin of eye or to anterior half of eye. Maxillary barbel reaching vertical to posterior half of eye. Male with longer pectoral fin, covered with many small unculi on dorsal surface of unbranched and branched rays 1–3 and a shallow suborbital groove, almost completely continuous with surrounding skin in some individuals.

Coloration. Body yellowish in life and preserved individuals. Head plain brown on top or with mottled pattern, cheeks with fine dark-brown spots or mottled pattern, without colour pattern ventrally. No pigmentation below a line from pectoral-fin base to anus. Back dark- or pale-brown with two, rarely one wide, dark-brown saddles, wider than interspaces and fused to lateral bars or blotches in few individuals. A large, roundish, dark brown blotch at dorsal fin-origin and below posterior half or dorsal-fin base. No, one or two narrow dark-brown saddles on upper caudal peduncle, usually fused with blotches or bars on flank. Flank with a bold dark-brown inner axial stripe and 5–8, epidermal, large, dark-brown, irregularly shaped, horizontally elongated blotches along lateral midline, individual blotches vertically elongated to short bars in few individuals. Blotches often fused, not forming a stripe, not reaching to belly or to ventral side on caudal peduncle. Flank below lateral series of blotches with isolated patches of blotches or a row of small dark-brown spots, absent in two out of 80 individuals. Flank above midlateral row of blotches mottled, in front of a vertical of last dorsal-fin ray often with a depigmented stripe between midlateral blotches and blotches on back. Chevron shaped bar at caudal fin base, dissociated into a large lower blotch and a small spot or into two, usually indistinct spots in few individuals, usually fused to the last midlateral blotch. Two black blotches on caudal-fin base in some individuals overlaid by chevron-shaped bar. In preserved or stressed fishes, overlaid colour pattern might fade and two black blotches become visible. Last unbranched dorsal-fin ray with a black spot at about midlength of ray. Dorsal- and caudal-fins with a tessellated pattern on rays. Anal-, pelvic- and pectoral fins usually hyaline, with few dark-brown spots on rays in some individuals.

Distribution. Oxynoemacheilus hanae   was found in a headwater stream ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 ) of the upper Sirwan (Kurdish) drainage [Sirvan (Persian) or Diyala (Arabic)] in Iraq. Besides the type locality, it was also found in a stream at the village Saraw (35°22'20"N 45°50'06"E). The Sirvan is a left side tributary of the Tigris flowing down from the Zagros Mountains.

Etymology. The species is named for Hana A. Raza who works for Nature Iraq in Sulaymaniyah. Hana accompanied JF during fieldwork in Iraqi Kurdistan. A noun in genitive, indeclinable.

Comparative material. Additional materials of Oxynoemacheilus   species examined other than those below are listed by Freyhof et al. (2012) and Freyhof (2016).

Oxynoemacheilus bergianus   : FSJF 3212, 6, 40–50 mm SL; Iran: Gilan prov.: Ghezel –ozan River, a tributary to Sefid River .— FSJF 3216, 3, 38–58 Iran: Guilan prov.: Lower Sefid River below dam at Shar Bijar , 37°01'13.65''N 49°37'51.80''E.— FSJF 3227, 12, 38–52 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Qom prov.: Qom River southwest of Shashme Ali , 34°21'11.25"N 50°32'52.66"E.— FSJF 3230, 46, 32–46 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Albroz prov.: Kordan River near Karaj city, 35°57'11''N 50°50'15''E.— FSJF 3249, 5, 31–61 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Ardabil prov.: Yalekhlou River, a tributary of Lake Urmia , 38° 00' 8.95" N 47° 46' 6.34"E.— FSJF 2923, 2, 45–61 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Batman prov.: stream Sason between Çatakköprü and Sason, 38.2622N 41.2591E.— FSJF 2873, 1, 56 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Elazığ prov.: Tigris 5 km north of Maden , 38.4157N 39.6531E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus chomanicus   : FSJF 3644, 5, 33–61 mm SL; Iraq: Choman River at Alut, 35°57' 23"N 45°36'56"E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus   : ZMH 1889, holotype of Nemacheilus insignis euphraticus   , 29 mm SL; ZMH 1890, 20 paratypes of N. i. euphraticus   , 24–36 mm SL; Turkey: Malatya.— FSJF 1990, 24, 25–61 mm SL   ; Turkey: Mus prov.: stream Page at Yaygin , about 30 km west of Mus, 38°55'N 41°16'E.— FSJF 1996, 5, 36–55 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Elazig prov.: stream at village Karakocan , at street from Elazig to Bingöl, 38°57'N 40°01'E.— FSJF 2636, 20, 35–60 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Adıyaman prov.: upper River Göksu, 5 km northeast of Gölbaşı , 37° 50.217N 37° 41.088E.— FSJF 2910, 26, 28–66 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Sivas prov.: stream Kangal under railway bridge at Çetinkaya , 39.2516N 37.6189E.— FSJF 3376, 31, 34.8–73.6 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: Rezan River near Ziraran, a tributary to Greater Zab River , 36°56.60'N 44°11.72'E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus frenatus   : NMW 48552, 5 syntypes, 26–70 mm SL; NMW 15477, 1 syntype; 43 mm SL; Iraq: Tigris River at Mosul.— FSJF 2534, 19, 41–67 mm SL   ; Turkey: Diyabakır prov.: stream Göksu below Göksu dam, south of Çınar at road from Diyabakır to Mardin, Tigris drainage, 37°41.56''N 40°26.87''E.— FSJF 2614, 3, 44–75 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyabakır prov.: River Tigris south of Diyabakır , 37° 53.230N 40° 13.788E.— FSJF 2844, 1, 39 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Ambar at road to Silvan , 25 km east of Diyarbakır, 37.9902N 40.3824E.— FSJF 2874, 2, 45–50 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Elazığ prov.: Tigris five km north of Maden , 38.4157N 39.6531E.— FSJF 2946, 25, 31–53 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: Spring of Pamuk at Kocaköy , 38.2721.N 40.5628E.— FSJF 2952, 1, 42 mm SL   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Bağlıca between Bismil and Tepe, 37.8084N 40.7169E.— FSJF 2954, 4, 48–59 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Savur between Bayındır and Ahmetli, east of Tepe , 37.7637N 40.8839E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus karunensis   : FSJF 3525, 8, 33–55 mm SL; Iran: Hamadan prov.: Gamasiab River at Do Ab , 34°22'20.76"N 47°55'00.1"E.— FSJF 3523, 6, 34–51 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Hamadan prov.: Haram Abad River at Ashmizan , 34°06'37.7"N 48°52'13.55"E.— FSJF 3524, 7, 37–53 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Hamadan prov.: Dehno stream about 2 km south-west of Nahavand , 34°10'08.7"N 48°21'11.52"E.— FSJF 3526, 2, 30–40 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Hamadan prov.: Gamasiab River at Chesme Mahi , 34°20'17.6"N 48°01'56.6"E.— SMF IR7, 3, 36–44 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Khozestan prov.: Marun River near Behbehan , 30°39'24''N 50°11'18''E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus kiabii   : FSJF 3003, 7, 34––53 mm SL; Iran: Hamadan prov.: stream Dehnoo, 3 km west of Nahavand on the road from Nahavand toward Sarab-e- Gamasiab , 34°10'N 48°24'E.— FSJF 3004, 2, 38–44 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Hamadan prov.: stream Babarostam, a tributary of Gamasiab River , 34°10'18”N 48°21' 23”E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus   : FSJF 2843, 1, 47 mm SL; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Ambar at road to Silvan , 25 km east of Diyarbakır, 37.9902N 40.3824E.— FSJF 2875, 36, 27–69 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Elazığ prov.: Tigris 5 km north of Maden , 38.4157N 39.6531E.— FSJF 2945, 6, 30–68 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: Spring of Pamuk at Kocaköy , 38.2721.N 40.5628E.— FSJF 2951, 12, 44–54 mm SL   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Bağlıca between Bismil and Tepe, 37.8084N 40.7169E.— FSJF 2957, 5, 49–54 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Turkey: Diyarbakır prov.: stream Savur between Bayındır and Ahmetli east of Tepe , 37.7637N 40.8839E.— FSJF 3369, 28, 40–61 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: Nalparez River 35°34.24'N 45°51.78'E.— FSJF 3347, 25, 50–62 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: stream north-west of Saburawa, a tributary of Tabin River , 35°50'01''N 45°06'16''E.— FSJF 3353, 9, 40–61 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: stream Kuna Massi in Sevanja , 35°47.35'N 45°24.18'E.— FSJF 3373, 54, 35–62 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: stream Suraw near Suraw village , 35°45.76'N 45°59.09'E.— FSJF 3642, 7, 39–48 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: stream Zalm south of Taparezina , 35°18'23"N 45°58'14"E.— FSJF 3643, 15, 36–62 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iraq: Choman River at Alut , 35°57' 23"N 45°36'56"E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus longipinnis   : CMNFI 1979-0366, holotype, 36.0 mm SL; Iran: Meymeh River, 17 km west of Dehloran, about 21 kilometers east of Iraqi border, 32°45'30"N, 47°05'30"E.— CMNFI 1979-0365, 7, 32.0– 40.5 mm SL GoogleMaps   ; Iran: Khuzestan prov.: stream in Doveyrich drainage, 32°25"N 47°36'30"E. GoogleMaps  

Oxynoemacheilus parvinae   : ZM-CBSU D222, 54.4 mm SL; D225, 58.2 mm SL; D226, 36.7 mm SL; D227, 59.0 mm SL; Iran: Kordestan prov.: Dehkan River at Abbas Abad, at road betwen Divandareh and Sanandaj, 35.525N 47.094E.

TABLE 3. Morphometric data of Oxynoemacheilus hanae (holotype ZFMK 103020 and paratypes (FSJF 3359; n = 20). The calculations include the holotype.

  holotype paratypes      
    mean min max SD
Standard length (mm) 57.1   45.1 61.2  
In percent of standard length          
Head length 23.2 22.6 21.3 24.1 0.7
Body depth at dorsal–fin origin 19.1 19.0 17.4 20.9 1.0
Predorsal length 49.0 50.0 47.9 52.7 1.2
Postdorsal length 37.5 36.7 34.4 38.5 1.2
Preanal length 73.0 74.8 72.4 76.6 1.2
Prepelvic length 50.2 52.1 49.2 55.1 1.5
Distance between pectoral and pelvic-fin origins 28.1 29.6 27.7 31.3 1.3
Distance between pelvic and anal-fin origins 22.5 23.2 20.3 25.2 1.2
Distance between vent and anal-fin origin 3.1 2.3 1.5 3.2 0.5
Depth of caudal peduncle 11.3 11.2 10.2 12.7 0.6
Length of caudal peduncle 19.4 17.7 15.6 20.0 1.2
Dorsal-fin depth 20.5 20.0 17.3 22.6 1.5
Anal-fin base length 8.6 9.1 7.7 10.6 0.7
Pectoral-fin length 24.2 22.1 18.6 26.0 2.5
Pelvic-fin length 16.9 17.0 14.4 19.2 1.1
In percent of head length          
Head depth at eye 45 49.3 45 55 2.7
Snout length 40 41.7 36 48 3.4
Eye diameter 16 18.0 14 31 4.4
Postorbital distance 43 46.4 39 52 3.1
Maximum head width 66 68.4 63 77 3.9
Interorbital width 28 29.7 22 34 2.6
Length of inner rostral barbel 24 25.8 18 31 3.8
Length of outer rostral barbel 35 35.3 30 42 3.3
Length of maxillary barbel 28 29.0 22 35 4.5
SMF

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