Lypha fumipennis Brooks, 1945, Brooks, 1945

O’Hara, James E., 2005, A review of the tachinid parasitoids (Diptera: Tachinidae) of Nearctic Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), with keys to adults and puparia, Zootaxa 938, pp. 1-46: 26-28

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.171153

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FDFDC54-F3E5-4876-A999-170BCB078147

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7E6C879C-3302-945E-FE97-FB42222DFB64

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lypha fumipennis Brooks, 1945
status

 

Lypha fumipennis Brooks, 1945   , Fig. 45 View FIGURES 43 – 48. 43

Host records ex. Choristoneura conflictana:   Prentice 1955, as Lypha setifacies   (SK, MB); † Arnaud 1978, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (SK, MB); † Huber et al. 1996, as Lypha setifacies   ( America north of Mexico); O’Hara 2002 (AB, †SK, MB).

Host records ex. Choristoneura fumiferana:   Brooks 1945, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips fumiferana   (ON, QC); Wilkes & Anderson 1947, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips fumiferana   (ON); Dowden et al. 1951, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips fumiferana   (NY); Jaynes & Drooz 1952, as Lypha setifacies   (NY, ME); Miller 1955, as Lypha setifacies   (NB); Dowden et al. 1953, as Lypha setifacies   (ME); McGugan & Blais 1959, as Lypha setifacies   (ON); Blais 1960, as Lypha setifacies   (QC); MacDonald & Webb 1963, as Lypha setifacies   (NB); † Miller 1963, as Lypha setifacies   (NB); Blais 1965, as Lypha setifacies   (QC); † Tilles & Woodley 1984, as Lypha setifacies   (ME); Hébert et al. 1989, as Lypha setifacies   (QC); Huber et al. 1996, as Lypha setifacies   (NB); Bourchier & Smith 1998, as Lypha setifacies   (ON); Cappuccino et al. 1999, as Lypha setifacies   (QC); † Smith et al. 2002, as Lypha setifacies   (eastern Canada); O’Hara 2002 (ON, †NB, †QC, †NY, ME).

Host records ex. Choristoneura fumiferana   and/or Choristoneura occidentalis:   Brown 1941, as Lypha dubia   ex. Cacoecia fumiferana   ( Canada); † Dowden et al. 1948, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips fumiferana   (North America); † Zwolfer 1961, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (North America); † Arnaud 1978, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (BC, ON, QC, NB, ME, NY).

Host records ex. Choristoneura fumiferana   , Choristoneura occidentalis   and/or Choristoneura pinus   : † Ross 1952, as Lypha setifacies   ex. spruce and/or jack pine budworm ( Canada).

Host records ex. Choristoneura occidentalis:   O’Hara 2002 (BC, †OR).

Host records probably ex. Choristoneura occidentalis:   Coppel 1947, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips fumiferana   (BC); Wilkes et al. 1949, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (BC); Coppel 1953, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (BC); Carolin & Coulter 1959, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (OR); † Coppel 1960, as Lypha setifacies   ex. C. fumiferana   (BC).

Host records ex. Choristoneura occidentalis   and/or Choristoneura retiniana:   Schaupp et al. 1991, as Lypha setifacies   (OR).

Host records ex. Choristoneura pinus:   Benjamin & Drooz 1954, as Lypha setifacies   (MI); Dixon & Benjamin 1963, as Lypha setifacies   (WI); Allen et al. 1969, as Lypha setifacies   (MI); † Arnaud 1978, as Lypha setifacies   (WI, MI); Nealis 1991, as Lypha setifacies   (ON); † Huber et al. 1996, as Lypha setifacies   ( America north of Mexico); †Frankenhuyzen 2002, as Lypha setifacies   (ON, prairie provinces); O’Hara 2002 (ON, †WI, †MI).

Host records ex. Choristoneura rosaceana:   Brooks 1945, as Lypha setifacies   ex. Archips rosaceana   (QC); † Arnaud 1978, as Lypha setifacies   (QC); † Huber et al. 1996, as Lypha setifacies   ( America north of Mexico); † O’Hara 2002 (QC).

Lypha fumipennis   is a dark coloured tachinid, 5 –7.5mm long, that occurs throughout southern Canada and the northern United States and is also recorded from Georgia ( O’Hara 2002). It was redescribed by O’Hara (2002) in his revision of the Polideini of America north of Mexico. Lypha fumipennis   (as L. setifacies   ) was included in a key to the puparia of dipterous parasitoids of Choristoneura   species by Ross (1952) and in a key to the adults of dipterous parasitoids of C. occidentalis   (as C. fumiferana   ) in British Columbia by Coppel (1960). Tilles and Woodley (1984) included L. fumipennis   (as L. setifacies   ) among the five tachinid species treated in their manual of spruce budworm parasitoids in Maine.

Almost all the North American species of Lypha   were combined under the name L. dubia (Fallén)   , a Palearctic species, until Brooks (1945) revised the Canadian species of the genus. Brooks did not examine the type series of L. setifacies   (West), however, and O’Hara (2002) showed that Brooks misapplied this name. O’Hara (2002) discovered that the species described by Brooks as L. intermedia   is in fact L. setifacies   , and that the L. setifacies   of Brooks is conspecific with the species Brooks (1945) described from British Columbia as L. fumipennis   . Hence, the valid name for this Choristoneura   parasitoid is L. fumipennis   . Unfortunately, the name used by Brooks (i.e., L. setifacies   ) became entrenched in the literature on Choristoneura   parasitoids because this species has long been known as a parasitoid of the spruce budworm.

Host attack by L. fumipennis   has not been described but is probably similar to that of its Palearctic relative, Lypha dubia (Fallén)   . Lypha dubia   deposits fully incubated eggs in the vicinity of a host, the eggs hatch soon afterwards, and the first instars search for and parasitize the host ( Schröder 1969). Lypha fumipennis   parasitizes fifth and sixth instar larvae of Choristoneura   and the fully mature maggot emerges from the sixth instar of its host, or more rarely from the pupa ( Benjamin & Drooz 1954; Carolin & Coulter 1959; Allen et al. 1969; Hébert et al. 1989). The maggot enters the ground, overwinters in the puparium, and emerges as an adult in spring ( Brooks 1945; Coppel 1947). Adults are only seen during spring and early summer ( O’Hara 2002), so there is probably only one generation per year. Females of L. dubia   in Europe live for 30–50 days, have a preoviposition period of approximately a month, and develop about 150 eggs ( Schröder 1969).

Lypha fumipennis   is one of the most significant tachinid parasitoids of late instar Choristoneura   larvae. Most studies of budworm parasitism have reported its presence (as L. setifacies   ) and parasitism rates are sometimes high. Benjamin and Drooz (1954) and Allen et al. (1969) reported parasitism of up to 16 % and 9 % respectively in C. pinus   in Michigan, Dowden et al. (1951) reported up to 18 % parasitism of C. fumiferana   in New York, Jaynes and Drooz (1952) reported up to 17 % parasitism of C. fumiferana   in Maine, Nealis (1991) found greater than 20 % parasitism of C. fumiferana   in northwest Ontario, and Wilkes et al. (1949) reported up to 10 % parasitism of C. occidentalis   (as C. fumiferana   ) in British Columbia. In several studies L. fumipennis   was the most dominant, or one of the most dominant, parasitoids of late instar budworms ( Benjamin & Drooz 1954; Tilles & Woodley 1984; Nealis 1991). Lypha fumipennis   (as L. setifacies   ) was ranked by Wilkes et al. (1949) as the fifth most important parasitoid, and third most important dipterous parasitoid, of C. occidentalis   (as C. fumiferana   ) in British Columbia. Jaynes and Drooz (1952), Nealis (1991), and Bourchier and Smith (1998) reported increased rates of spruce budworm parasitism prior to the collapse of an outbreak, suggesting that L. fumipennis   may have played a role in budworm decline.

Lypha fumipennis   is almost exclusively a parasitoid of Choristoneura   species ( O’Hara 2002). The other known hosts are a tortricid, Pseudosciaphila duplex (Walsingham)   , and a pyralid, Dioryctria reniculelloides (Mutuura & Munroe) ( O’Hara 2002)   .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tachinidae

Genus

Lypha

Loc

Lypha fumipennis Brooks, 1945

O’Hara, James E. 2005
2005
Loc

Dioryctria reniculelloides (Mutuura & Munroe) ( O’Hara 2002 )

(Mutuura & Munroe) (O'Hara 2002
2002