Lysilinga pilifrons (Kröber)

Webb, Donald W. & Metz, Mark A., 2006, A Revision of the New World Genera Brachylinga Irwin and Lyneborg and Lysilinga Irwin and Lyneborg (Diptera: Therevidae: Therevinae) with the Description of a New Genus, Elcaribe Webb, Zootaxa 1288 (1288), pp. 1-241: 233-235

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Lysilinga pilifrons (Kröber)


Lysilinga pilifrons (Kröber)  

( Figs. 369, 379, 389, 399, 409, 419, 429, 439, 447, 448)

pilifrons Kröber (1928a:18   , orig. desc., Fig. 14 male head) ( Psilocephala   ); Metz et al. (2003:33 comb. change; 34 trans. orig. desc.) ( Lysilinga   ). Type locality Costa Rica, San Jose, Farm la Caja. Holotype male in DEIC.

maculifrons Kröber (1928a:20   , orig. desc.) ( Psilocephala   ); Metz et al. (2003:33 comb. change, NT design., trans. orig. desc.) ( Lysilinga   ). Type locality Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Estación Maritza. Neotype male INBC. New Synonymy.

The holotype male of Psilocephala pilifrons Kröber   was compared with the Neotype male of Psilocephala maculifrons Kröber   and found to be conspecific based on the raised shape of the male frons, the coloration of the filamentous setae on the fore­ and midfemora; the distinctive size and shape of the hypoproct; and the presence of a large ventrally directed lobe subapically on the distiphallus.


Lysilinga pilifrons   is taxonomically associated with L. crassiseta   in possessing setae on the katepisternum and in possessing dorsocentral macrosetae. Lysilinga pilifrons   differs from L. crassiseta   in having the ventral setae on forefemur dark brown to black; lacking anteroventral macrosetae on the forefemur; the male tergite 8 with a basal sclerotized collar ( Fig. 369); the apex of the gonocoxite lacking thick black macrosetae (Fig. 379); the subapical hood of the distiphallus short and the ventrolateral surface with a broad lobe (Fig. 439); and the female frons silver around the dorsal margin of antennal bases with a small brown area dorsolaterally.

Redescription of male

Variation (n=5).

Body length 4.8–6.2, 5.5 mm.

Head. Ommatidia smaller ventrally and laterally. Frons black, pruinescence gray, dense with small, dark brown area dorsolaterally along margin of eye; surface distinctly raised; setae black. Antenna with scape and pedicel black, flagellum dark brown, pruinescence gray; setae on scape black, elongate. Parafacial pruinescence silver gray. Maxillary palpus dark yellow, dark reddish brown basally; setae pale yellow. Genal setae white. Occipital setae white ventrally becoming turquoise, iridescent, lanceolate, appressed along margin of eye dorsally. Postocular macrosetae dark reddish brown.

Thorax. Macrosetae dark reddish brown, 3 np, 2 sa, 1 pa, 1–2 dc, 2 sc. Mesonotum brownish gray; setae black, erect, elongate intermixed with pale gold green, iridescent, lanceolate, appressed setae. Pleuron gray; setae white on propleuron, anepisternum (becoming pale yellow dorsally), katepisternum, laterotergite (becoming pale yellow dorsally), and metanepisternum, pale gold green, iridescent, lanceolate, appressed on scutellum. Wing. Membrane pale gray; veins brown; pterostigma pale brown, narrow; cell m 3 closed, petiolate. Halter dark brown. Legs. Coxal macrosetae dark reddish brown. Femora dark reddish brown, pruinescence white; ventral setae black on fore­ and midfemora; av 0:0:0, pv 0:0:0–6. Tibiae dark yellow, dark reddish brown apically particularly on hindtibia. Tarsomere 1 dark yellow; 2–5 dark reddish brown.

Abdomen. Dark reddish brown, pruinescence white, dense; dorsal setae whitish yellow, appressed. Terminalia   (INBIO 737293) dark yellowish brown. Tergite 8 ( Fig. 369) with basal sclerotized collar. Epandrium ( Fig. 369), posterolateral margin heavily sclerotized on ventral surface; setae reddish brown. Hypoproct ( Fig. 369) large, quadrate, posterior margin truncate to slightly emarginate; ending distal to apex of cercus. Gonocoxite ventral view (Fig. 379) oblong, rounded laterally, median margin straight, then tapering apically to narrow, sinuate point; setae dark brown with short, pale yellow setae posteromedially; dorsal view ( Fig. 389), gonocoxal bridge small; lateral view (Fig. 399) rectangular, tapering apically to broad point; ventral lobe (Fig. 379) lacking spines. Gonostylus ( Fig. 409), basodorsal lobe moderately large, rounded dorsally; ventral margin blade­like, setae dark yellow; fine, short spines laterally. Aedeagus with dorsal apodeme (Fig. 419) broad, rectangular, posterolateral margin rounded; ventral apodeme ( Fig. 429) narrow, tapered anteriorly, not reaching anterior margin of dorsal apodeme; distiphallus dorsal view (Fig. 419) short tapered apically with dorsal carina, lateral margin of apex with large ventrally directed lobe; lateral view (Fig. 439), broad basally, tapered apically in broad curve, apex not recurved apically, subapical hood small, pointed; ejaculatory apodeme (Fig. 419), anterior half large, expanded laterally, extending beyond anterior margin of dorsal apodeme, anterior margin emarginate, in cross­section flattened dorsoventrally with two short dorsal carinas.


Similar to male except for following.

Variation (n=10).

Body length 4.8–6.5, 5.9 mm.

Head. Frons brownish gray, silver around dorsal margin of antennal base with small brown area dorsolaterally; setae black. Antenna dark reddish brown, scape and pedicel pruinescence gray; setae on scape dark reddish brown.

Thorax. Macrosetae 3 np, 2 sa, 1 pa, 2 dc, 2 sc. Mesonotum setae black, elongate intermixed with pale gold green, iridescent, lanceolate, appressed setae. Legs. Anteroventral macrosetae 0:0:0, pv 0:0:0–4.

Abdomen. Dark reddish brown, glossy, pruinescence white on posterolateral margin of tergites 2–7; dorsal setae dark reddish brown with white, elongate, appressed setae along posterior margin of tergite 1; lateral setae dark reddish brown. Terminalia   (MEI 011346). Furca ( Fig. 447) quadrate, posterior margin rounded; length 0.40 mm, width 0.22 mm; posteromedial lobe small; anterolateral projection short; anteromedial lobe absent. Common duct ( Fig. 447) longer than furca. Spermathecal ducts ( Fig. 447) directed anteriorly.

Distribution Lysilinga pilifrons   is known from Costa Rica ( Fig. 448).

Habitats and phenology

Adults of Lysilinga pilifrons   have been handnetted and collected in Malaise traps from 1 February to 30 April.

Specimens examined

Type specimens. The holotype male of Psilocephala pilifrons Kröber   is labeled "Farm La Caja, 8 km west S. José, Febr.– April 1924 " and is in the DEIC. The Neotype male of Psilocephala maculifrons Kröber   ( Metz et al. 2003:33 NT design.) is labeled "Est. Maritza, 600m, lado O Vol Orosi, Prov. Guanacaste, Costa Rica, F. A. Quesada, 27 feb– 10 mar. 1992, L­N 326900,373000" and is in the INBC. Other Specimens. COSTA RICA. GUANACASTE. Maritza Station, 12.II.1995, L. S. Kimsey, 1♀ MEI 055573 ( UCD)   ; Rincon de la Vieja National Park [Parque Nacional Volcán Rincón de la Vieja], Est. Las Pailas [10.81, ­85.33], 800 m   , 9–27.II.1993, K. Taylor, 3♂ MEI 011281, 011283, 011321 ( INBC)   ; 9–19.II.1994, 1♂ MEI 154651 ( INBC)   ; 3 km SE Rio Naranjo [9.912, ­84.951] GoogleMaps   , 10–19.II.1992, FDP, 1♀ MEI 101097 ( EMUS)   ; 19–22.II.1992, 1♀ MEI 101113 ( EMUS)   ; 23–28.II.1992, 2♀ MEI 101245, 101295 ( EMUS)   ; 11–18.III.1992, 1♀ MEI 101296 ( EMUS)   ; 13–23.III.1992, 3♀ MEI 037020–2 ( EMUS)   ; 22–30.III.1992, 1♀ MEI 101103 ( EMUS)   ; 15–28.III.1992, 1♀ MEI 085088 ( EMUS)   ; –. IV.1992, 2♀ MEI 085113, 101227 ( EMUS)   ; 15–30.IV.1992, 1♀ MEI 101143 ( EMUS)   ; 16–20.IV.1992, 1♀ MEI 101091 ( EMUS)   ; 1.II.1993, 1♀ MEI 101247 ( MEIC)   ; 1–15.III.1993, 1♂ MEI 141834 ( INHS)   ; 16–31.III.1993, 1♂ MEI 41770 View Materials ( MEIC)   ; 21–28.III.1993, 1♀ MEI 101282 (E MUS)   ; Santa Rosa National Park , 300 m   , 21.II–14.III.1987, D. Janzen, J. Gauld, 4♀ MEI 122464, 138900, 138911, 138914 ( LACM)   , Malaise trap, shaded: Iado O Vol. Orosi, E stancia Maritza [9.8, ­83.55], 600 m, 27–II–10.III.1992, F. A. Quesada, 1♀ MEI 011277 ( INBC)   . San Jose. Escazú [9.92, ­84.15], 29.III–3.IV.1988, FDP, 1♂ MEI 007985 ( EMUS)   .


University of California, Davis


Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)


Illinois Natural History Survey


Muskingum College


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County














Lysilinga pilifrons (Kröber)

Webb, Donald W. & Metz, Mark A. 2006

pilifrons Kröber (1928a:18

Metz, M. A. & Webb, D. W. & Irwin, M. E. 2003: 33
Krober, O. 1928: 18

maculifrons Kröber (1928a:20

Metz, M. A. & Webb, D. W. & Irwin, M. E. 2003: 33
Krober, O. 1928: 20