Sphaeroceridae

Marshall, S. A., Luk, S. P. L. & Dong, H., 2014, A revision of the New Zealand species of Howickia Richards, Zootaxa 3887 (1), pp. 1-36: 3-5

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3887.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A305AADA-ED80-4894-B8C4-2091F2F35544

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7D468E3E-180F-FFD2-37DD-F91CFA7AFED8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sphaeroceridae
status

 

Key to the apterous or micropterous Sphaeroceridae   of New Zealand (all in the genus Howickia   )

1 Front of head with three distinct, complete, narrow, parallel-sided silver-white pruinose strips ( Figs. 1, 3 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ): one in the middle of the interfrontal area and one on each side of the interfrontal area. Dark part of frons forming parallel bands, not an M-shape ( Figs. 1, 3, 7 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 10, 12, 14 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Halter often absent, face often at least partly bare and shining ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). ( H. trilineata   group)... 2

- Front of head with interfrontal bristles on converging dull darker strips, middle of interfrontal area forming a triangular, indistinctly silvery area similar to the dorsally incomplete, indistinctly silvery orbital strips ( Figs. 16, 17 View FIGURES 15 – 18 ). Dark part of frons forming an M-shape ( Figs. 16, 17 View FIGURES 15 – 18 ). Halter always present, face always entirely microtrichose. ( H. myersi   group, species identification requires male specimens)................................................................... 11

2 Tergites 1–3 fused into a large syntergite covering most of the abdomen ( Figs. 5, 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Wing rudiment forming a flat, brown flap with a loop of venation ( Figs. 5, 6, 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Postgonite strongly bent anteriorly, with an almost right-angled bend at middle ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 34 – 39 ).................................................................................................... 3

- Syntergite 1 + 2 separate from tergite 3 ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 9, 11, 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Wing variable, often entirely absent, if present then usually without venation ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 9, 11, 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Postgonite gently curved or straight, without a right-angled bend at middle (Figs, 22, 28, 43, 52, 65)................................................................................................. 5

3 Scutum and scutellum similarly dull, densely microtrichose. Orbital bristle very large, similar in size to outer vertical bristle. Face mostly microtrichose, dull. Surstylus without elongate posteroventral lobe or stout ventral bristles ( Fig. 45). Halter present........................................................................ H. nudistylus Marshall   sp. nov.

- Scutellum shining, bare ( Figs. 5, 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Orbital bristles variable ( Figs. 5, 7 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Face all or mostly shining ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Surstylus with a stout bristle at apex of posterior lobe ( Figs. 35, 39 View FIGURES 34 – 39 ). Halter absent ( Figs. 5, 6, 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 )................................... 4

4 Upper orbital and outer vertical bristles well developed ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Portion of wing flap distal to loop of venation subequal to portion enclosed by vein ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Scutum entirely microtrichose, dull, contrasting with the bare scutellum ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 1 – 8 )......................................................................................... H. omamari Marshall   sp. nov.

- Upper orbital and outer vertical bristles minute or absent ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Portion of wing beyond loop of venation less than half as large as portion enclosed by vein ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Scutum and scutellum shining, without microtrichia except for narrow anterior and posterior fringes ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1 – 8 )...................................................... H. mercurialis Marshall   sp. nov.

5 Halter and wing rudiments absent ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Scutum orange to reddish brown, often contrasting with darker abdomen ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Upper orbital bristle strong, as long as outer vertical bristle ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 14 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Basal scutellar bristle very long, as long as or longer than apical bristle ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 , 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 )..................................................................... 6

- Halter present or absent, if absent then wing present as a distinct, veinless flap ( Figs. 9, 11 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Scutum as dark as abdomen ( Figs. 9, 11 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Upper orbital bristle minute or absent, at most half as long as outer vertical ( Figs. 10, 12 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Basal scutellar bristle shorter than apical scutellar bristle ( Figs. 9, 11 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ).................................................................... 8

6 Thorax and abdomen similarly reddish brown. Surstylus trilobed, with an elongate posterior lobe ending in a terminal spur, a triangular ventral lobe, and a spatulate anterior lobe ( Figs. 49, 50 View FIGURES 49 – 52 ). Sternite 5 of male with prominent pale posteromedial area armed with a cluster of very short, broad bristles ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 49 – 52 )............................... H. regalis Marshall   sp. nov.

- Thorax reddish brown, abdomen much darker. Surstylus bilobed. Sternite 5 of male with posteromedial bristles similar in length to other bristles on sternite....................................................................... 7

7 Scutum reddish but lower pleuron, including katepisternum, dark brown ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Hind tibia dorsally dark on distal quarter. Male postabdomen dark, similar to preabdomen. Male sternite 4 with enlarged posteromedial bristles near middle..................................................................................... H. nigriventer Marshall   sp. nov.

- Thorax orange except for dark katatergite; katatergite sharply contrasting in colour with balance of thorax ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Hind tibia entirely yellow-orange ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Male postabdomen orange, contrasting with dark abdominal segments 1–5 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 8 ). Male sternite 4 without enlarged bristles..................................................... H. bicolor Marshall   sp. nov.

8 Halter absent ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Wing rudiment present as a dark, broadly oval, veinless flap several times larger than a normal halter knob ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Ocelli reduced, sometimes apparently absent ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 9 – 14 )................. H. nigrilegula Marshall   sp. nov.

- Halter present ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Wing rudiment small or absent, if present then no larger than a normal halter knob and usually stub-like ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). At least posterior ocelli distinct ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 9 – 14 )........................................................... 9

9 Face entirely shining and bare ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Apex of halter knob truncate, whitish microtrichose ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 9 – 14 ). Orbital bristles absent ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 9 – 14 )............................................................................ H. trilineata (Hutton)  

- Lower margin of face silvery pruinose. Apex of halter knob rounded, dark-microtrichose. Orbital bristles present or absent..................................................................................................... 10

10 Upper orbital bristle absent. Scutellum shining, sparsely setulose. Wing present as a minute, flat, veinless flap. Male sternite 5 with a small posteromedial comb row ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 23 – 24 )..................................... H. exasperata Marshall   sp. nov.

- Upper orbital bristle present. Scutellum densely and evenly microtrichose, dull. Wing a minute stub. Sternite 5 without a posteromedial comb ( Fig. 27)....................................................... H. harrisoni Marshall   sp. nov.

11 Sternite 5 of male without a posteromedial comb, but sometimes flanked by clusters of short setae ( Figs. 55 View FIGURES 53 – 56 , 64 View FIGURES 62 – 65 )........ 12

- Male sternite 5 with a posteromedial comb ( Figs. 59 View FIGURES 57 – 61 , 68, 72 View FIGURES 70 – 74 , 77)............................................... 13

12 Male sternite 5 concave posteromedially, deeper than medial length of sternite; with scattered setae but without a comb or thickened bristles ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 53 – 56 ). Surstyli asymmetrical; right surstylus shorter than left, with a conspicuously blunter and broader terminal spur on posterior lobe ( Figs. 53, 54 View FIGURES 53 – 56 ). Both surstyli deeply U-shaped, with anterior and posterior lobes ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 53 – 56 ). Postgonite with beak-like preapical lobe on anterior surface ( Fig. 56 View FIGURES 53 – 56 ). Basal scutellar bristle shorter than apical scutellar bristles ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15 – 18 ). Eye less than 2.0X genal height ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15 – 18 )................................. H. myersi (Richards)   comb. nov.

- Male sternite 5 with posteromedial concavity shallower than medial length of sternite; posteromedial setae enlarged ( Fig. 64 View FIGURES 62 – 65 ). Surstyli symmetrical, with main body subquadrate, without prominent anterior lobe, posterior lobe smaller than large terminal spur ( Figs. 62, 63 View FIGURES 62 – 65 ). Postgonite without beak-like preapical lobe on anterior surface ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 62 – 65 ). Basal and apical scutellar bristles equal. Eye more than 2.0X genal height............................................. H. palmai Marshall   sp. nov.

13 Posteromedial comb of male sternite 5 double, with a prominent, straight row of about 15 short, broad bristles followed by a row of about 30 much smaller bristles ( Fig. 77). Surstylus simple, broadly concave ventrally with posterior spur strongly inclinate ( Figs. 75, 76)............................................................... H. zonula Marshall   sp. nov.

- Posteromedial comb of male sternite 5 single ( Figs. 59 View FIGURES 57 – 61 , 68, 72 View FIGURES 70 – 74 ). Surstylus differently shaped, either subquadrate or with spur directed ventrally................................................................................... 14

14 Posteromedial comb of male sternite 5 straight with teeth fused over most of their length, area immediately anterior to comb with two groups of 8 short stout bristles ( Fig. 72 View FIGURES 70 – 74 ). Scutellum 2.0X as wide as long........... H. wahaika Marshall   sp. nov.

- Area immediately anterior to posteromedial comb without stout bristles, if comb straight then teeth separated by at least half of their length ( Figs. 59 View FIGURES 57 – 61 , 68). Scutellum 3.0X as wide as long................................................... 15

15 Male sternite 5 with straight posteromedial comb and a cluster of short stout bristles midway between comb and anterior margin ( Fig. 68). Surstylus with anterior and posterior ventral lobes each with long spurs, posterior part of surstylus with multiple stout bristles ( Figs. 66, 67)........................................................ H. tangata Marshall   sp. nov.

- Posteromedial comb triangular or heart-shaped, middle part of sternite 5 without additional bristles ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 57 – 61 ). Surstylus with a single long posteroventral lobe bearing two long spurs ( Figs. 57, 58 View FIGURES 57 – 61 )....................... H. cordata Marshall   sp. nov.