Hilsenbergia lowryana J.S. Mill.

Miller, James S., 2003, Classification of Boraginaceae subfam. Ehretioideae: Resurrection of the genus Hilsenbergia Tausch ex Meisn., Adansonia (3) 25 (2), pp. 151-189: 177-181

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5181019

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7C0F87F9-1651-FFDD-FF7C-B5CC5885D2DE

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Hilsenbergia lowryana J.S. Mill.
status

sp. nov.

10. Hilsenbergia lowryana J.S. Mill.   , sp. nov.

Frutex vel arbor usque   ad 10 m alta, cortice exfoliante, ramunculis glabris. Folia decidua, alterna; lamina elliptica   , 1.5-5.5 cm longa, 0.8-3 cm lata, apice acuminata   , basi cuneata   usque   decurrente, margine integra, basim versus involuta, adaxialiter glabra   vel sparsim puberula secus costam, abaxialiter puberulenta vel fere glabra   ; petiolo 1-2.5(-3) cm longo. Inflorescentiae terminale, cymosae. Flores bisexuales; calyce campanulato, 3.5- 4 mm longo, 5-lobo, extra glabro; corolla alba   , campanulata   , 4.5-5.5 mm longa. Fructus drupaceus, depresse-globosus, 3.5-4.5 mm longus, 4-5 mm in diam.; pyrenis 4, porcati.

TYPUS. — Service Forestier: SF28492 (Capuron)   , Madagascar, Prov. Fianarantsoa, vestiges de forêt tropophile, dans la vallée de la Menarahaka, à l’est d’Ihosy, 22°19’S, 46°16’E, fl., 19 Dec. 1968 (holo-, P!; iso-, MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   .

Shrub or tree to 10 m tall, the bark exfoliating, the twigs glabrous. Leaves deciduous, alternate, borne only on the current season’s growth; blades elliptic, 1.5-5.5 cm long, 0.8-3 cm wide, the apex acuminate, the base cuneate to decurrent, the margin entire, slightly thickened and distinctly involute near the base, the adaxial surface glabrous or with a few scattered hairs along the midrib, the abaxial surface evenly to sparsely puberulent or nearly glabrous, the venation brochidodromous, the midrib even with the adaxial surface or slightly impressed near the base, raised on the abaxial surface, the secondary veins 4-6, noticably parallel, the tertiary venation reticulate; petioles 1-2.5(-3) cm long, glabrous, tightly canaliculate on the adaxial surface.

Inflorescences terminal, cymose, the branches glabrous. Flowers bisexual; calyx campanulate, 3.5-4 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, 5-lobed, the lobes valvate, triangular, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous on both surfaces but sometimes minutely puberulent on the margins of the lobes; corolla campanulate, 4.5-5.5 mm long, 4.5-5 mm wide, 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, 1.3-1.7 mm long; stamens 5, the filaments 3-3.5 mm long, the upper 2-2.7 mm free, glabrous, the anthers ellipsoid c. 1 mm long; ovary conical, 1.5-2 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, the style 2-2.2 mm long, dichotomously branched at the apex or not, the 2 stigmas capitate.

Fruits drupaceous, color at maturity unknown, borne in the persistent, cup-shaped to spreading calyx, depressed globose, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 4-5 mm in diameter, the endocarp bony, separating into 4, single-seeded pyrenes at maturity, 3-4 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, ridged. — Fig. 13 View Fig .

Hilsenbergia lowryana   can be recognized by long-petiolate leaves with blades that are elliptic and nearly glabrous. HUMBERT’ s collections note that the fruits of this species are edible and that the wood is used for heating. With the exception of a single sterile specimen I was able to make in 2003, this species has not been collected since 1969. It occurs to the east of Tuléar, in the region that supplies most of the charcoal to the city. There is evidence that this species is being selectively gathered, as it is valued as a fuelwood, and its exploitation has significantly reduced its abundance and narrowed its distribution.

It is named in honor of Porter P. LOWRY II, a close friend and professional colleague, who has

done so much to promote the study of the Malagasy flora, who has contributed through his own collections and publications, and who accompanied me on several field trips in Madagascar.

DISTRIBUTION. — Hilsenbergia lowryana   is known only from southwestern Madagascar ( Fig. 11 View Fig ).

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Lambora, Lamboro, Lambotaha, Malamasafoy.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category: Endangered (EN B2ab(i-iv)). Hilsenbergia lowryana   occurs at scattered localities in southern Madagascar. However, with the exception of a single collection in 2003, it has not been collected for more than 30 years and it has not been recorded from any protected areas, although it is known from near the Parc National de Zombitsy.

PARATYPES. — MADAGASCAR: Humbert   11556, Prov. Toliara, basse vallée du Fiherenana, forêt et bush sur calcaire, 50-200 m, 23°18’S, 43°36’E, fr., Nov. 1933 (P!); Humbert   20200bis, Prov. Toliara, vallée de l’Onilahy près de Tongobory, à Ranomay, forêt xérophile des coteaux et plateaux calcaires rocailleux, 80-200 m, 23°34’S, 44°20’E, stér., 6-8 Feb. 1947 (P!); Miller et al. 10742, Prov. Toliara, Km 64 on Route Nationale 7, W of Toliara, deciduous forest; highly disturbed with trees cut, on calcareous rock, 360 m, 23°10’22”S, 44°03’45”E, ster., 29 Jan. 2003 (MO!, P!, TAN!); Service Forestier: SF5914 (Bototsalaoendry), Prov. Toliara, Andamasiny-Vineta, Km 90, route Tuléar - Tananarive, 23°01’S, 44°15’E, fl., 8 Nov. 1952 (MO!, P!); Service Forestier: SF12599 (Dinard), Prov. Toliara, Tuléar, 23°21’S, 43°40’E, fr., 20 Oct. 1954 (P!); Service Forestier: SF15597, Prov. Toliara, Vineta, Behena, Majaboboka, Tuléar, 480 m, 23°01’S, 44°15’E, fl., 20 dec. 1955 (P!, TEF!); Service Forestier: SF20753 (Capuron & Chauvet), Prov. Toliara, Andranovory, route de Tuléar - Sakaraha, au PK 47, à 2 km à l’est d’Andronahimaly, 400 m, 23°15’S, 44°01’E, fl., 8 Jan. 1962 (P!); Service Forestier: SF27853bis (Capuron), Prov. Fianarantsoa, vestiges de forêt dans le haut bassin de la Menarahara, à l’est d’Ihosy, 22°19’S, 46°16’E, fl., 5 Nov. 1967 (P!, TEF!); Service Forestier: SF27944 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, Andranovory, formations de transitions entre le bush et la forêt tropophile, vers le PK 48 de la route Tuléar - Sakaraha, 23°16’S, 44°E, fl., 8-12 Nov. 1967 (P!, TEF!); Service Forestier: SF28937 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, Sorita, crêtes et barres calcaires, au lieu-dit Ankiranja, à 30-35 km de Manja, sur la route de Bevoay, 198 m, 21°32’S, 44°E, fl., 3-4 Dec. 1969 (P!, TEF!); Service Forestier: SF4-R-82, Prov. Toliara, forêt d’Ankazomalanga, près d’Andranovory, canton Maromiandra, 700 m, 22°46’S, 44°42’E, ster., 30 Nov. 1953 (MO!, P!); Service Forestier: SF112-R- 226, Prov. Toliara, au nord du village d’Ankilimilopaka dans la savane arborée, canton Bekitro, 24°40’S, 45°27’E, ster., 18 May 1954 (P!); Service Forestier: SF921-R-1, Prov. Toliara, J.B. 10, Beando, 400 m, 23°10’S, 44°04’E, ster., 14 Feb. 1955 (P!).

11. Hilsenbergia lyciacea (Thulin) J.S. Mill.   , comb. nov.

Bourreria lyciacea Thulin, Nord. J. Bot.   7: 415 (1987). — Type: Thulin & Warfa 4506, Somolia, Middle Juba Region, 14 km on the Jelib-Camsuma road, near Shek Ahmed Yare, 6 May 1983 (holo-, UPS; iso-, K!, MOG).

Shrub or small tree to 6 m tall, densely branched, the newly emerging twigs puberulent, later glabrous and often with a thin waxy surface layer. Leaves alternate, but mostly in fascicles at the tips of branches and on short lateral spur shoots, deciduous; blades elliptic to obovate, the broadest point at or above the middle, 8-22 (-25) mm long, 3-10(-14) mm wide, the apex obtuse to rounded or emarginate, the base acute to cuneate, the margin entire and tightly revolute, the adaxial surface scabrous, evidently rough to the touch, the hairs from a basal, multi-cellular cystolith, the abaxial surface densely tomentose to scabrid or completely glabrous; petioles 1-4 (-6) mm long, scabrous to stiffly pubescent or tomentose, strongly canaliculate on the adaxial surface.

Inflorescences terminal, small cymes with up to 5(-10) flowers, the peduncles 5-10 mm long, the branches stiffly pubescent to nearly glabrous. Flowers bisexual or apparently female, on pedicel-like branches 1-5 mm long; calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm long, 3.5-5 mm wide, 5-lobed, the lobes valvate, triangular, 1.5-2 mm long, densely pubescent to glabrous on the exterior surface, glabrous to sparsely pubescent on the inside of the lobes; corolla white to pale yellow-green, campanulate, 4-6 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, 5- lobed, the lobes erect to spreading, broadly ovate and crisped along the margin, 1-1.5 mm long; stamens 5, the filaments 1-3 mm long, the upper 0.8-2.2 mm free, glabrous, the anthers ellipsoid to lanceoloid 0.6-1 mm long; ovary conical, 1-2 long, 1-1.5 mm wide, the style 1-2.5 mm long, the 2 stigmas capitate.

Fruits drupaceous, color at maturity unknown, borne nearly enclosed in the persistent, cupshaped calyx, globose, 4-5 mm long, 4-5 mm in diameter, the endocarp bony, separating into 4 single-seeded pyrenes, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5- 1.7 mm wide, ridged on the exterior surface.

Hilsenbergia lyciacea   has previously been reported only from Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia. The Malagasy populations are quite similar in appearance to those from continental Africa, differing only in sometimes having a greater number of flowers per inflorescence. In addition, the calyx in the Malagasy populations ranges from completely glabrous to densely pubescent while the African populations have calyces that are consistently glabrous. Because of these differences, the full description provided above is based only on the Malagasy populations to demonstrate both similarities and differences from the original description by THULIN (1987), which was based solely on East African plants. This species is somewhat similar to Bourreria teitensis (Gurke) Thulin   , which occurs in Kenya, Tanzania, and Somolia, but that species differs in having larger leaves and glandular pubescence on the inflorescence branches.

CAPURON described H. lyciacea   as dioecious and collected two individuals from the same population (SF28987, male; SF28988, female) in excellent flowering condition. The plant that CAPURON labeled male, looks very much like those found in normal bisexual Hilsenbergia   flowers, with stigmas and stamens borne at nearly the same height; no fruit are evident setting on the specimen. The plant that CAPURON labeled female has a gynoecium very similar to that from other plant, but has stamens that are noticibly smaller, with the filaments only 1 mm long and attached only at the very base, and anthers that are reduced in size and have not dehisced; this specimen has fruits of several developmental stages present in addition to the flowers. Lacking paired collections, the interpretation of breeding systems from other populations is not so straight forward. Some specimens appear to have bisexual flowers, some exhibit flowers with very reduced stamens, and some collections having flowers with full size stamens (morphologically similar to CAPURON’ s male plant) have developing fruits evident on the herbarium specimens. While it is thus apparent that variability exists in the sexual system of this species, additional field studies will be necessary in order to fully understand the variation present.

This species is reported to be used as an indigenous medicine in Madagascar to treat diarrhea and hemoraging ( Humbert   20240).

DISTRIBUTION. — Hilsenbergia lyciacea   is known from southern Somolia, Ethiopia, and eastern Kenya and also occurs in southwestern Madagascar ( Fig. 14 View Fig ).

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Adriamanindry, Hazomara, Nato.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Provisional IUCN Red List Category (Malagasy populations): Endangered (EN B2ab(i-iv)). Hilsenbergia lyciacea   is known from scattered localities in southern Madagascar, where it is provisionally endangered, but it also occurs in east Africa ( THULIN 1987). It is known to occur in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Tsimanampetsotsa and the dry parcel of the Parc National d’Andohahela.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR: Decary 3059, Prov. Toliara, Behara, terrain cristallin, 24°57’S, 46°23’E, fl., 1 Sep. 1924 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 3076, Prov. Toliara, Behara, terrain cristallin, 24°57’S, 46°23’E, fl., 1 Sep. 1924 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Decary 9354, Prov. Toliara, Beteny, 24°27’S, 46°26’E, fl., 22 Nov. 1931 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   2943bis, Prov. Toliara, de la vallée de la Sakamena à la vallée de La Sakoa, bassin de l’Onilagy, à l’est de Betioky, vers 300 m, 23 o 45’S, 44°33’E, fr., 16 Mar. 1955 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Humbert   20240, Prov. Toliara, environs du lac Tsimanampetsotsa, 2-200 m, 24°08’S, 43°47’E, fl., 14 Feb. 1947 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Methuen s.n., Prov. Toliara, Ampanihy, 24°42’S, 44°45’E, fl., 29 Oct. 1911 ( K!) GoogleMaps   ; Miller et al. 10743, Prov. Toliara, 20 km NE of Tuléar on Route Nationale 7, La Table, deciduous forest on limestone, 130 m, 23°24’33”S, 43°47’02”E, ster., 29 Jan. 2003 ( MO!, P!, TAN!) GoogleMaps   ; Miller & Miller 3782, Prov. Toliara, 14 km SE of Tuléar on the road to Sakaraha, 100 m, 23°21’S, 43°42’E, ster., 26 Dec. 1988 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Miller & Schatz 3744, Prov. Toliara, 12 km W of Tuléar on the road to Sakarha, low deciduous forest on the plateau above Tuléar , 150 m, 23°21’S, 43°42’E, fl., 12 Dec. 1988 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; O’Connor 42, Prov. Toliara, Berenty, 25°01’S, 46°17’E, fl., Dec. 1984 ( K!) GoogleMaps   ; O’Conner 68, Prov. Toliara, Berenty, 25°01’S, 46°17’E, fl., 4 Nov. 1984 ( K!) GoogleMaps   ; Phillipson 2441, Prov. Toliara, Beza Mahafaly Reserve , near Betioky, Parcelle 2, 180 m, 23°40’S, 44°35’E, fl., 23 Oct. 1987 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Phillipson 2835, Prov. Toliara, Réserve d’Andohahela, Parcelle 2, NE of Amboasary near Hazofotsy, 100 m, 24°50’S, 46°32’E, fl., 7 Dec. 1988 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Phillipson 2961, Prov. Toliara, Réserve d’Andohahela, Parcelle 2, near Hazofotsy, 75 m, 24 o 50’S, 46 o 32’E, fr., 22 Dec. 1988 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Phillipson & Rabesihanaka 3145, Prov. Toliara, Réserve de Tsimanampetsotsa , NW corner of Reserve, 50 m, 24°04’S, 43°46’E, fl., fr., 11 Jan. 1989 ( K!, MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Rabevohitra 2400, Prov. Toliara, préfecture de Fort-Dauphin, sur la route Ambovombe- Toliara, à 10-20 km de Tsihombe, 25°19’S, 45°29’E, fr., 19 Oct. 1990 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Rakotomalaza 586, Prov. Toliara, Andohahela, RNI, parcelle 2, ENE Ihazofotsy, bord de la route, près du campement 6, 120 m, 24°49’S, 46°37’E, fl., 12 Dec. 1995 ( MO!) GoogleMaps   ; Réserves Naturelles: RN9428 (Rakotoson), Prov. Toliara, Andohahela, RNI, Marotoka, Behara, dist. Amboasary , 24°57’S, 46°23’E, fl., 22 June 1957 ( P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF34 -R-18, Prov. Toliara, 20 km sur la route Ampanihy - Tranoroa, 24°42’S, 45°04’E, ster., 11 Dec. 1953 ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF8536 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, aux environs d’Ambatoabo, dist. de Fort Dauphin , 24°51’S, 46°41’E, fl., s.d. ( P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF22263 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, plateau calcaire aux environs de la Table, Tuléar , 23°20’S, 43°40’E, fr., 12 Dec. 1962 ( MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF27999 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, entre Amboasary et Ranomainty , 24°41’S, 46°53’E, fr., 17 Nov. 1967 ( MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF28987 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, calcaires et argiles sur la route d’Ampanihy à Bevoalavo, au sud de l’embranchement de Befotaka, 25°15’S, 44°20’E, fl., 10 Dec. 1969 ( MO!, P!) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier: SF28988 (Capuron), Prov. Toliara, calcaires et argiles sur la route d’Ampanihy à Bevoalavo, au sud de l’embranchement de Befotaka, 25°15’S, 44°20’E, fl., 10 Dec. 1969 ( MO!, P!, TEF!) GoogleMaps   .

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

TEF

Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

NE

University of New England

TAN

Parc de Tsimbazaza

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Boraginales

Family

Ehretiaceae

Genus

Hilsenbergia

Loc

Hilsenbergia lowryana J.S. Mill.

Miller, James S. 2003
2003
Loc

Bourreria lyciacea Thulin, Nord. J. Bot.

Thulin 1987: 415
1987