Prototrupes copridoides (Kolbe)

Gussmann S. M. & Scholtz, C. H., 2000, Systematic revision of endemic southern African genera of Bolboceratinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Bolboceratidae), Journal of Natural History 34, pp. 1045-1123 : 1059-1060

publication ID 10.1080/00222930050020122

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Prototrupes copridoides (Kolbe)


Prototrupes copridoides (Kolbe)

(®gures 1b±j, l, m, 2b, c, 3, 24e)

Bolboceras copridoides Kolbe, 1907: 29 ; PeÂringuey 1908: 644 (Redescr., Transl.); Boucomont 1912: 8; Paulian 1941: 139, ®gures 17, 20, 22. Prototrupes copridoides (Kolbe) : Krikken 1977a: 164 (Tax.).


Body length. 14.9±22.3 mm.

Head. Clypeus with vertical incline from apex to well-developed and raised anterior transverse carina; anterior carina arcuate in frontal view, sometimes notched in the middle, and curving downward laterally to antero-lateral clypeal corners; lateral carina absent with the exception of a lateral carinate horn above antennal insertion; males with one median tubercle or horn, usually in line with anterior margin of eye-canthi (®gure 1b). Frons in females with pair of tubercles or horns between eye-canthi (®gure 1c).

Pronotum (®gure 2c). Anterior two-®fths with two transversely arcuate carinae medially, topping steep, anterior declivity; with carinate protrusion antero-lateral to declivity; with two arcuate, carinate ridges between protrusion and postero-lateral pronotal angle; with very dense punctation grading from small punctures in posterior part to large, shallow punctures anteriad and towards sides; lateral margin distinctly crenulate.

Scutellum. Coarsely punctate.

Elytron. Striae moderately impressed, their punctures small and separated by two to four puncture diameters; intervals with single punctation (approximately three to ®ve small punctures between two striae).

Legs. Protibia six-dentate (®gure 2c). Protarsus with ®rst tarsomere always distinctly longer than ®fth tarsomere, and as long as tarsomeres 2, 3 and 4 together; tarsomeres 2±4 in dorsal view feebly dilated apically. Mesotibia with dorsal side shaped as in ®gure 1l.

Distribution (®gure 3). Widespread in the Kalahari sands of southern Africa but the distribution range also extends in a north-western direction up to the Kunene River where both species, Prototrupes copridoides and Prototrupes kochi , seem to occur sympatrically.

Type material examined. LECTOTYPE l(designated by Krikken (1977a)):`D. S. W. Afrika, Lindt S. G.’/`copridoides n.sp. prope spurium PeÂring. ’ /`type’ [typed]/` Bolboceras copridoides Kolbe J. Krikken ms 1977, Lectotype’ (ZMHB).

Additional material examined (21 specimens). Botswana: 1m, 42 km S of Tshane, SE 24 21 Bd , 10.v.1991, E. Holm & S. Gussmann ( UPSA) . Namibia: 2mm, Kaokoveld, Kunene Riv. , 44 km S, 17.34S 12.17E, 17.ii.1984, E-Y: 2079, groundtraps, 54 days, leg. Penrith, MuÈller, groundtraps with ferm.banana bait ( TMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2mm, same data but: E-Y: 2078, groundtra p with meat bait ( TMSA) GoogleMaps ; 1m, Okahandja [21.58S 16.56E], 3.xii.1959, Gaerdes ( SMWN, H25829 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1,l Mariental, Stampried 132, SE 24 18 Ad , 7±, S. Louw, M.-L. Penrith ( SMWN, H35257 View Materials ) . South Africa: 2 ll, 1m, N. Cape, Twee Rivieren Camp, Kalahari Gemsbok N.P., 26.28S 20.37E, 12± 15.iv.1989, C. H. Scholtz ( UPSA) GoogleMaps ; 1m, Kal. Gemsb. Park, Twee Rivieren [26.29S 20.37E], 22.v.1972, L. & O. Prozesky ( TMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2 ll, Kalahari Gemsbok Park, Rooiputs , 26.20S 20.49E, 6.i.1992, C. H. Scholtz ( UPSA) GoogleMaps ; 1m, same data but: 28.i.1989 ( UPSA) GoogleMaps ; 1,l C.P., Buguberg [28.37S 21.45E], 21.ii.1961, L. Vari ( TMSA) GoogleMaps ; 2 ll, 2mm, Cape Province, Groblershoop , 28.53S 21.59E, 895m, iv.1988, C. G. E. Moolman ( SANC) GoogleMaps ; 1,l Northern Cape Province, Brandvlei , 30.27S 20.29E, 13.iv.1997, C. R. Owen ( COCS) GoogleMaps ; 1m, Lemoenbord 320, Philippolis, SE 30 24 Bb , 17± 21.ix.1976, A. Strydom ( BMSA, No. 7407) .

Comments. Little material of Prototrupes copridoides has been collected in comparison with Prototrupes kochi . Krikken (1977a), who examined only six specimens of the former species, was uncertain whether the cephalic dimorphism, i.e. three tubercles or horns versus four, is sex-related or not. With additional material available for this study, it is now unquestionable that cephalic sexual dimorphism is indeed present in Prototrupes copridoides .

The position of the cephalic tubercles or horns may vary to some degree. One male was found with a trihorned transverse carina with all three horns in one line as opposed to three separate horns, with the median horn positioned posteriorly relative to the lateral horns.

Apart from those mentioned in the key, the following character states can be used additionally to distinguish between Prototrupes kochi and Prototrupes copridoides : the antero-lateral angle of eye-canthus obtuse in the former species, but acuminate in the latter; sides of the eye-canthi subparallel in the former, converging caudad in the latter; protibia usually ®ve-dentate in the former, but six-dentate in the latter; punctation of pronotum and scutellum sparser and ®ner in the former, but denser and coarser in the latter.


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Prototrupes copridoides (Kolbe)

Gussmann S. M. & Scholtz, C. H. 2000

Bolboceras copridoides Kolbe, 1907: 29

KRIKKEN, J. 1977: 164
PAULIAN, R. 1941: 139
BOUCOMONT, A. 1912: 8
PEARINGUEY, L. 1908: 644
KOLBE, H. J. 1907: 29
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