Grania hinojosai, Prantoni & Wit & Erséus, 2016

Prantoni, Alessandro Lívio, Wit, Pierre De & Erséus, Christer, 2016, First reports of Grania (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) from Africa and South America: molecular phylogeny and descriptions of nine new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 176 (3), pp. 485-510 : 497-498

publication ID 10.1111/zoj.12333


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Grania hinojosai

sp. nov.


FIGURE 7 GRANIA View Figure 7 SP. CHILE 1; DE WIT ET AL., 2011B


ZUEC CLI 08 View Materials , PDW186 View Materials , whole-mounted, sexually mature specimen, with some segments amputated, from Puerto Aldea , Coquimbo, Elqui, Chile, 30°18′19″S, 71°39′33″W. Intertidal, sand among rocks, P. De Wit and I. Hinojosa, 6 February 2009. COI barcode sequence, GenBank acc. no. GU902189 View Materials ; for other sequence data, see Table 1 View Table 1 . GoogleMaps


Named for Ivan Hinojosa, who was instrumental to all of the Chilean fieldwork.


Four whole-mounted, sexually mature specimens, and all collected by P. De Wit. ZUEC CLI 09 View Materials , PDW187 View Materials , with some segments amputated, from type locality. ZUEC CLI 10 View Materials CLI 12 View Materials , PDW177 View Materials , PDW181 View Materials , PDW182 View Materials , with some segments amputated, from Pampilla Point , Coquimbo, Elqui, Chile, 29°57′23″S, 71°21′39″W, heterogeneous sand with organic material, 6 February 2009. For COI barcodes of paratypes, see Table 1 View Table 1 GoogleMaps .


Body> 4.15–5.85 mm long,> 18–28 segments (n = 5) (posterior ends used for DNA extractions), 0.17– 0.20 mm wide at segment V, 0.16–0.20 mm at segment XII (n = 5). Prostomium conical or rounded, 67–87 μm long, 100–110 μm wide, epidermis not reduced at front tip, 10–12 μm thick (n = 5). Ventral chaetae from segment IV, lateral chaetae from segments XVII– XIX. Chaetae ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ) increasing in size towards the posterior, 30–65 μm long, shaft straight, 3.7–6.2 μm thick at midpoint, L-shaped, proximally bent into a foot, with low instep and indistinct heel. Chaetal index ( Rota & Erséus, 2003) 3.99 ± 0.42 (n = 5). Epidermal gland cells inconspicuous. Clitellum maximally 7–10 μm thick, extending from posterior half of segment XI to anterior half of segment XIII, formed by more or less regular transverse rows of granular cells, absent between male pores. Spermathecal pores in lateral lines, somewhat posterior to 4/5. Male pores ventrolateral in midsegment XII. Female pores not observed.

Brain posteriorly indented. Head organ (sensu Rota & Erséus, 1996) absent. Pharyngeal glands in segments IV–VI, dorsal lobes in segment IV (one pair), in segment V (one pair), and in segment VI (one pair), ventral lobes present in segment IV (one pair), in segment V (two pairs), and in segment VI (two pairs); glands not connected dorsally. Nephridia not observed. Chloragogen cells not observed. Dorsal blood vessel commencing in segments XV or XVI. Coelomocytes not observed. Sperm sac extending into segment XIV, egg sac extending into segment XVI (holotype). Sperm funnels about 1.5 times longer than wide ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ). Vasa deferentia observed in segments XI–XII, internally ciliated, tightly coiled near sperm funnel, 10 μm wide. Penial apparatus type 1 (sensu Coates, 1984), small, compact glandular bulb, 47–50 μm long, 55–67 μm wide (n = 5); stylet absent. Midventral copulatory gland (in segment XIV) present. Each spermatheca attached to oesophagus in posterior half of segment V through narrow ental duct. Ampulla ‘heart-shaped’, 37–55 μm long, 37–52 μm wide ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ). Sperm rings maximally 17 μm wide, but few (n = 5). Ectal duct narrowing at both ends, 80–92 μm long, 37–40 μm wide, joining ampulla through a conical intrusion, with a prominent gland attached near pore ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ).


The diagnostic characters for G. hinojosai sp. nov. are the unique combination of the glands at the spermathecal pores, the location of these pores, at some distance from 4/5, the short sperm funnels, and the small and compact penial bulbs.

Among the group of Grania species possessing glands at the spermathecal pores, Grania novacaledonia De Wit & Erséus, 2007 resembles this Chilean species by sharing characters such as the distribution of lateral chaetae, the chaetal size distribution (increasing in size posteriorly), presence of a midventral copulatory gland (in segment XIV), and the absence of copulatory stylets; however, G. hinojosai sp. nov. is distinguished by its shorter sperm funnel and its spermathecal ducts narrowing ectally. Spermathecal glands have also been reported for some species in the West Indian Ocean [ Grania ersei Coates, 1990 and Grania darwinensis ( Coates & Stacey, 1997) ], North Pacific waters [ Grania paucispina ( Eisen, 1904) ], and the North ( G. americana ) as well as the South Atlantic Ocean ( G. monochaeta ). The heart-shaped spermathecal ampulla, the somewhat spindle-shaped spermathecal duct, and the more posterior distribution of the lateral chaetae appear to distinguish G. hinojosai sp. nov. from G. ersei and G. paucispina ; the lateral chaetae begin in segments XVII–XIX in G. hinojosai sp. nov., but in segments XIV or XV in the other two taxa. Grania ersei has a top-shaped spermathecal ampulla, and a long, coiled spermathecal duct, whereas G. paucispina has a spermatheca with an ovoid ampulla. Moreover, G. ersei possesses very long copulatory stylets, structures not even present in G. hinojosai sp. nov.

The Western Australian G. darwinensis has a more complex penial apparatus than G. hinojosai sp. nov., i.e. it has accessory glands, covered by muscle layers, at both sides of the bulb, whereas in G. hinojosai sp. nov., the whole apparatus is smaller and compact.

Grania americana is easily differentiated from G. hinojosai sp. nov. by the length of the sperm funnel (eight times longer than wide in the former, about 1.5 times longer than wide in the latter) and the presence of a head organ, absent in G. hinojosai sp. nov.

Although G. monochaeta and G. hinojosai sp. nov. share the somewhat unusual, more posterior, position of the spermathecal pores, and the presence of a midventral copulatory gland in segment XIV ( Rota & Erséus, 1997), the lateral chaetae start in segment XIII in G. monochaeta , but start in segments XVII–XIX in G. hinojosai sp. nov. Finally, G. hinojosai sp. nov. differs from all species mentioned above by its short sperm funnel.


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