Anacharoides Cameron, 1904

Buffington, Matthew & van Noort, Simon, 2009, A revision of Anacharoides Cameron, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) with a description of a new species, ZooKeys 20 (20), pp. 245-274 : 248-254

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.20.124

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Anacharoides Cameron


Anacharoides Cameron

Anacharoides Cameron, 1904 . Type species: Anacharoides striaticeps Cameron, 1904 , by original designation and monotypy.

Coelonychia Kieffer, 1910 . Type species: Coelonychia spinosipes Kieffer , by monotypy. Synonymy by Weld (1930).

Diagnosis. Species of this genus are immediately separable from all other Figitidae by the distinctive scutellar depression bounded by a pair of sharp, postero-dorsal triangular projections (Figs 1–4). The elongate petiole is somewhat variable within Aspicerinae , though the state in Anacharoides is longer than in most other genera. The only two taxa Anacharoides can be confused with are Callaspidia and Pujadella ; both of these latter genera have mesoscutal sculpturing that is remininscent of Anacharoides ; however, close examination of the scutellar morphology easily separates these taxa.

Redescription. Color. Body ruddy brown to black (Figs 1–4), older specimens tending toward orange; antennae yellowish–orange basally, dark brown or black apically; legs yellowish–orange to dark brown; wings clear.

Head. Entire anterior surface coriaceous to rugulose, densely setose; ocellar ridge well developed, simple to rugulose, connecting lateral ocelli dorsal of central ocellus; area posterior of ocellar ridge microcoriaceous to shagreened; orbital furrows complete from inner margin of lateral ocellus to ventral margin of eye; torulus raised to form distinct collar, strigate, ventrally lobed along lateral edge of midpit of frons; midpit of frons densely setose (solid white in most specimens); area between anterior tentorial pits slightly raised, clypeus indistinct from lower frons, malar sulcus indistinct. Genal region setose, entirely porcate, lines connecting posterior margin of eye with genal carina; genal carina well developed, extended to anterior surface of pronotum; posterior surface of head concave on outer edges, flat centrally, distinctly strigose with strigae encircling occipital foramen. Antenna in female with 11 flagellomeres, 12 flagellomeres in males; female F1 nearly cylindrical, expanded slightly apically; male F1 variously modified, ranging from nearly cylindrical, slightly bent outwardly mid-length to strongly assymetical, apically expanded, distinctly bent outwardly mid-length.

Mesosoma. Pronotal plate as wide as mesosoma when viewed antero-dorsally, outer flanges flared, meeting posterior margin of head mesal of genal carina; anterior and posterior margins of plate divided by large fovea set with ‘foamy’ setae; posterior margin of plate distinctly concave along anterior margin of mesoscutum; lateral aspect of pronotum setose, porcate antero-dorsally and antero-ventrally, gently carinate anteromedially, posterior region of sclerite coriaceous to shagreened (Fig. 2B). Tegula and upper anterior part of mesopleural triangle smooth, glabrous; posterior margin of up- per part of mesopleural triangle spatulate, covering base of hind wing; mesopleural triangle deeply inset into mesopleuron, densely setose; ventral 2/3 of mesopleuron glabrous, smooth; mesopleural carina reduced to short, straight ridge on anterior 1/3 of sclerite; setal patch present on postero-ventral corner of mesopleuron; latero-ventral mesopleural carina distinct. Metapectal-propodeal complex densely setose; metapectus bounded on all sides by distinct pleural ridge; upper metapleural sclerite and episternum bisected medially by distinct pleural carina; spiracular groove present, densely

Figure Ι Mesoscutum of Anacharoides species A A. pallida B A. nicknacki sp. n. C A. paragi D A. quadrus E A. striaticeps F A. stygius . Abbreviations: AAS, antero-admedial signum; NOT, notaulus; MSK, mesoscutal keel; PMF, postero-mesoscutal fovea; PS, parapsidal signum; SA, scutellar acetabulum; SF, scutellar fovea; SS, antero-admedial signum strut. All scale bars equal 0.5 mm.

Figure 2 Head and mesosoma A Anacharoides nicknacki sp. n. B Anacharoides pallida . Figure 3 Head and mesosoma A Anacharoides paragi B Anacharoides quadrus .

Figure 4 Head and mesosoma: A Anacharoides striaticeps B Anacharoides stygius .

setose, bounded posteriorly by pleural carina. Propodeum compact, not extended posteriorly; propodeal carinae parallel, auxillary propodeal carina present, meeting propodeal carina at metanotum, continuing to posterior margin of episternum, terminating in dense setal patch; area between propodeal carinae smooth with dense patch of setae located in center; nucha circular, thin. Lateral aspects of metanotum densely setose, medial posterior face of metanotum modified completely smooth, glabrous, shieldlike. Mesoscutum variously sculptured, ranging from completely shagreened (Fig. 1A) to strigate (Fig. 1F); antero-admedial signum present (AAS, Fig. 1A); antero-admedial signum struts present (Fig. 1D) to absent (Fig. 1A); mesoscutal keel always present posteriorly (MSK, Fig. 1A), present to absent anteriorly; inter antero-admedial signum ridges present to absent; notauli present (NOT, Fig. 1A), width constant to distinctly widened posteriorly, frequently interrupted by ridges, smooth to crenulate; parapisidal signum (PS, Fig. 1A) present, reduced in some species; posterior mesoscutal fovea present (PMF, Fig. 1A), ranging from short to medium-long, extending to posterior terminus of mesoscutal keel; posterior aspect of mesoscutellar fovea glabrous, ranging from smooth to strigate, anteriorly becoming coriaceous, setose. Scutellum with two distinct, large scutellar foveae, separated by median carina of scutellum, bounded laterally by distinct ridge; scutellar acetabulum present (SA, Fig. 1A), large, bounded on all sides by distinct ridge; postero-lateral corners of scutellar acetabulum with raised posteriorly directed triangular projections; lateral and posterior aspects of scutellum areolate-rugose; dorsal axillular area shagreened, axillula deeply impressed, setose, with distinct circular impression present anteriorly.

Wings. Clear, nearly glabrous except for few scattered, short, setae; apical fringe absent; R 1 incomplete, not reaching anterior margin of wing; RS 2 complete, reaching anterior margin of wing, turning slightly at terminus with wing margin towards apex of wing; wing veins very light yellow, clear in some specimens.

Legs. All coxae with distinct patch of setae on anterior and posterior faces; pro- and mesocoxae subequal in size; metacoxa 3–4 times as large (width and length); metacoxa with posterior impression to receive femora when folded; metatibia with posterior, mesal, distal ridges, lined with stout setae.

Metasoma. Petiole elongate, ranging from 3–6× longer than wide, glabrous, smooth to slightly carinate dorsally, distinctly strigate laterally, flanged anteriorly at junction with nucha, posteriorly obscured by tergum 1; tergum 1 reduced, ligulate, central anterior area with distinctly round setal patch; tergum 2 largest, 8× larger than tergum 1, terga 3–9 telescoped within tergum 2; micropores present on posterior 2/3 of tergum 2 and terga 3–9.

Distribution. (Fig. 6) Sub-Saharan Africa: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Arabian Peninsula: Yemen. Palearctic region: Canary Islands.

Biology. Species of Anacharoides , along with other Aspicerinae , have been associated with syrphid hosts (Buffington et al. 2007; Quinlan 1979). The two species recorded herein were reared from the syrphids Ischiodon Sack and Paragus Latreille (based on isolated host puparia identified by F. C. Thompson of the Smithsonian Institution).

Image collection: 467386.

Comments. Several autapomorphies distinguish Anacharoides from any other figitid genus. The width of the pronotal plate and the interaction of this structure with the posterior margin of the head is similar to the state found in zaeucoiline eucoilines ( Buffington 2009), and appear to have evolved in parallel. The function of this morphological feature is currently unknown. The sculpture of the mesoscutum, as well as the unusual scutellar fovea, make members of this genus readily recognizable. Finally, the species within the genus are united by an unusually long petiole, a state remarkably similar to that found in Anacharis and Xyalophora ( Anacharitinae ), and likely the root behind the name Anacharoides .












Anacharoides Cameron

Buffington, Matthew & van Noort, Simon 2009


Kieffer 1910


Cameron 1904

Anacharoides striaticeps

Cameron 1904