Fulcaldea Poiret (1817: 375)

Ferreira, Paola De Lima, Antonelli, Alexandre & Groppo, Milton, 2021, Touch me carefully: a step towards understanding morphological diversity in the South American spiny sunflowers (Compositae, Barnadesioideae), Phytotaxa 518 (2), pp. 109-142 : 132-133

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.518.2.3

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scientific name

Fulcaldea Poiret (1817: 375)


8. Fulcaldea Poiret (1817: 375) View in CoL

Type: — Fulcaldea laurifolia (Bonpl.) Poir.

Arching shrubs or small trees, up to 10 m tall. Stems erect, much-branched, lenticelate, cylindrical or flat, scales imbricate at base, glabrous, pubescent or rarely strigose, unarmed or with axillary spines in pairs, straight, convergent or divergent, glabrous or rarely pubescent at base. Leaves alternate, spiral, subsessile or petiolate, persistent or deciduous, blade elliptic or ovate, coriaceous, pale or rarely lustrous, glabrous, base acute or obtuse, margin flat, glabrous, apex acute, mucronate; venation eucamptodromous or actinodromous with 3 basal nerves. Capitulescence terminal or axillary, in corymbose or paniculate cymes. Capitula 1-flowered, homogamous, sessile or subsessile, involucre narrow cylindrical to cylindrical, 5–13-seriate, phyllaries scarious, green or pale brown, apex purple, erect or reflexed, glabrous or villous, ovate–triangulate grading to lanceolate, apex mucronate, margin flat, ciliate. Receptacle convex, glabrous, or pilose. Flowers bisexual, corolla tubular (5+0), 5-lobed, white, red, purple, externally densely villous. Anthers 5, apical appendage lanceolate, or obtuse, basal appendage decurrent, ecaudate, ecalcarate, inserted between the base and the throat, filaments free, glabrous. Style cylindrical but with a swollen portion below the branching point, white to cream or purple, apex purple. Cypsela cylindrical, densely sericeous. Pappus plumose, longer than the corolla length, white, pink or red bristles. Pollen without intercolpal depressions, spinulose (Suessy & Urtubey 2007). Chromosome number unknown.

Fig. 8a View FIGURE 8 ; 10f View FIGURE 10 .

Distribution and habitat: — Fulcaldea comprises two species with a remarkable 4,000 km disjunct distribution ( Funk & Roque 2011). Fulcaldea laurifolia (Bonpl.) Poir. is restricted to the dry forest in intermontane regions of southern Ecuador and northern Peru ( Ferreyra 1995), and Fulcaldea stuessyi is restricted to seasonally deciduous forest in northeastern Brazil in the Chapada Diamantina rocky chain ( Funk & Roque 2011).

Notes: — Fulcaldea is easily distinguished from the other Barnadesioideae genera by having a single-flower capitulum, and by the swollen style below the branching point ( Fig. 8a View FIGURE 8 ). The genus is part of a strongly supported clade together with Archidasyphyllum and Arnaldoa , being sister (also with strong support) to the latter according to Ferreira et al. (2019); however, this clade is morphologically diverse and synapomorphies that support the relationships among the genera are still to be determined ( Funk & Roque 2011, Ferreira et al. 2019). Funk & Roque (2011) hypothesized that the remarkable disjunction distribution (4,000 km) may be the result of vicariance or long-distance dispersal, thus being inconclusive on this subject.

Iconography: — Ferreyra (1995), Roque & Funk (2011).

Accepted species:—8.1 Fulcaldea laurifolia (Bonpl.) Poir. ; 8.2 Fulcaldea stuessyi N. Roque & V.A. Funk.

Selected specimens examined: — BRASIL. Bahia, Chapada Diamantina , Rio de Contas, distrito de Arapiranga, Fazenda Brandão, 5 August 2010, I.S. Abreu 123 ( ALCB; 8.2). Rio das Contas, antiga estrada do Brandão , sentido do sítio Marcela , 716 m, 13°28’11’’S, 41°46’32’’, July 2014, N. Roque 4386 ( ALCB; 8.2) . ECUADOR. Loja: Catacocha to Loma Quemada , km 8.5, 1600 m, 04°06’95”S, 79°36’312’‘W, 16 April 1996, G.P. Lewis 2247 (MO, K; 8.1). Sozoranga, km 4 along track from Sozoranga-Macará road to Reserva natural El Tundo, propriedade de fundación ARCOIRIS, 1850 m, 04°19’S, 79°49’W, 19 August 1997, G.P. Lewis 3497 ( MO; 8.1). Sozoranga outskirts, 1 km along track to Utuaña, 1700 m, 04°20’S, 70°47’W, 5 March 1977, G.P. Lewis 3038 (MO, K; 8.1). Km 2 road Sororanga- Yaramine, 1750 m, 04°18’S, 79°48’W, 17 June 1997, B.B. Klitgaard 203 (QCA, K; 8.1). GoogleMaps Manabí: Jama, 24 km south of Pedernales (as the crow flies) northwest off coastal highway; 1.5 km east of Edualdo ( Don Lalo ; 8.1) Loor’s farm, 30–150 m, 00°04’31’’S, 80°09’22’‘W, 9 October 1999, T. Delinks 399 ( MO; 8.1). Jama Cantón, Cerro del Matal , 3km northwest of Jama , 1 km inland from seashore, 100 m, 00°11’S, 80°18’W, D. Neill 11621 ( MO; 8.1). Machalilla National Park , 01°39”S, 80°41’W, C. Josse 1063 (GB, QCA; 8.1). Pedernales, Estación Biológica Lalo Loor, a 22 km al sur de Pedernales por la carretera costera, 2 km de la costa, 150 m, 00°05’07”S, 80°09’05’‘W, October 2005, J. Cevallos 213 ( MO; 8.1). San Vicente, thicket, 07 June 1955, E. Asplund 16595 (K; 1.1) GoogleMaps . PERU. Piura: Ayabaca, on road to Ayabaca, 18 km above Puente Tandopa ( Río Quiroz ), 1700 m, P. C. Hutchison 6685 (MO, K; 8.1). Ayabaca , 12.7 kms up from Puente Tandopa over Rio Quiroz , 1.540 m, 20 July 1992, T.F. Stuessy 12693 ( WU; 8.1). Huacabamba, bajo de Cachaque, 1100–1200m, 02 May 1955, R. Ferreyra 10932 ( MO; 8.1). Paimas, Ayabaca road, ca. 15 km W of Ayabaca, 1900 m, 20 September 1991, A.H. Gentry 74930 ( MO; 8.1) .


Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina


Missouri Botanical Garden


Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador


Wayland University

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