Raphia vinifera P.Beauv., 1804,

Mogue Kamga, Suzanne, Sonke, Bonaventure & Couvreur, Thomas L. P., 2019, Raphia vinifera (Arecaceae; Calamoideae): Misidentified for far too long, Biodiversity Data Journal 7, pp. 37757-37757: 37757

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.7.e37757

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scientific name

Raphia vinifera P.Beauv., 1804
status

 

Raphia vinifera P.Beauv., 1804 

Raphia vinifera  Palisot de Beauvois s.n.

Raphia mambillensis  Otedoh, 1982 - Otedoh (1982): 163 syn. n.

Raphia vinifera  M.O. Otedoh 7401

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Keay, R.W.J. 37938; recordedBy: Keay, R.W.J.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: About 1 mile from Bamenda on the Santa road ; decimalLatitude: 5.933330; decimalLongitude: 10.166700; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1960-5-10; year: 1960; month: 5; day: 10; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1140 A; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baforkum village on road up to Bambui Experimental Station. Mt Baku. ; decimalLatitude: 6.050000; decimalLongitude: 10.233300; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1963-6-15; year: 1963; month: 6; day: 15; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1195; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baba road ; decimalLatitude: 6.000000; decimalLongitude: 10.500000; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1963-7-18; year: 1963; month: 7; day: 18; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Fay, J.M. 2987; recordedBy: Fay, J.M.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Central African Republic; stateProvince: Bamingui-Bangoran; locality: Manovo-Gounda St floris National park, camp Koumbala ; decimalLatitude: 8.48583; decimalLongitude: 21.2025; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Dransfield, J.; dateIdentified: 1987; Event: eventDate: 1982-10-8; year: 1982; month: 10; day: 8; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Otedoh, M.O. n.s.; recordedBy: Otedoh, M.O.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Nigeria; stateProvince: Edo State; locality: NIFOR plantation near Benin city ; decimalLatitude: 6.390920; decimalLongitude: 5.581782; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1973-8-0; year: 1973; month: 8; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1197; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baba road ; decimalLatitude: 6.048130; decimalLongitude: 10.459200; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1963-7-18; year: 1963; month: 7; day: 18; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 842; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baba road ; decimalLatitude: 6.048130; decimalLongitude: 10.459200; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2018; Event: eventDate: 1962-0-0; year: 1962; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1196; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baba road ; decimalLatitude: 6.048130; decimalLongitude: 10.459200; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2018; Event: eventDate: 1963-7-18; year: 1963; month: 7; day: 18; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1139; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Baforkum village, by bridge on road up to Bambui Experimental Station. Mt Baku ; decimalLatitude: 6.048975; decimalLongitude: 10.234535; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2018; Event: eventDate: 1963-6-15; year: 1963; month: 6; day: 15; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Brunt, M.A. 1194; recordedBy: Brunt, M.A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Ndop plain, Ndop-Baba road ; decimalLatitude: 6.048130; decimalLongitude: 10.459200; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2018; Event: eventDate: 1963-7-18; year: 1963; month: 7; day: 18; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Palisot de Beauvois, A.M.F.J. n.s.; recordedBy: Palisot de Beauvois, A.M.F.J.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Nigeria; stateProvince: Edo State; decimalLatitude: 5.51666666666667; decimalLongitude: 5.75; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Stauffer, F.W.; dateIdentified: 2011; Event: eventDate: 1813-6-0; year: 1813; month: 6; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Jacques-Félix, H. 3089; recordedBy: Jacques-Félix, H.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: West Region; locality: Bayangam ; decimalLatitude: 5.289809; decimalLongitude: 10.420059; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2018; Event: eventDate: 1938-1-0; year: 1938; month: 1; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Fotius, G. 3088; recordedBy: Fotius, G.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: Adamawa Region; locality: Lompta, 38 km SSW Tigncre ; decimalLatitude: 7.368999; decimalLongitude: 12.650306; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1979-3-14; year: 1979; month: 3; day: 14; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Chevalier, A.J.B. 7701; recordedBy: Chevalier, A.J.B.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Central African Republic; stateProvince: Nana-Mambéré; locality: Dar Rounga, Kounde ; decimalLatitude: 6.116670; decimalLongitude: 14.633300; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1903-3-0; year: 1903; month: 3; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Chevalier, A.J.B. 8397; recordedBy: Chevalier, A.J.B.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Central African Republic; stateProvince: Bamingui-Bangoran; locality: Chari oriental: Kouti et pays Ndouka, Tele ; decimalLatitude: 8.863486; decimalLongitude: 20.927135; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1903-5-12; year: 1903; month: 5; day: 12; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Jacques-Félix, H. 8806; recordedBy: Jacques-Félix, H.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: Adamawa Region; locality: E. Adamawa, Hossere Sille, N. Of Meiganga ; decimalLatitude: 6.516670; decimalLongitude: 14.300000; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1967-10-22; year: 1967; month: 10; day: 22; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Chevalier, A.J.B. n.s.; recordedBy: Chevalier, A.J.B.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Mali; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1908-0-0; year: 1908; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimen  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Vaillant, A. 1095; recordedBy: Vaillant, A.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: West Region; locality: Dschang ; decimalLatitude: 5.457084; decimalLongitude: 10.062661; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1946-3-0; year: 1946; month: 3; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Couvreur, T.L.P. 638; recordedBy: Couvreur, T.L.P.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Belon, Zwinkles Guest House, in front of bathrooms. ; decimalLatitude: 6.191145; decimalLongitude: 10.382481; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Couvreur, T.L.P.; dateIdentified: 2014; Event: eventDate: 2014-3-5; year: 2014; month: 3; day: 5; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Couvreur, T.L.P. 640; recordedBy: Couvreur, T.L.P.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Cameroon; stateProvince: North-West Region; locality: Belon, on small path around Zwinkles Guest House ; decimalLatitude: 6.191145; decimalLongitude: 10.382481; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Couvreur, T.L.P.; dateIdentified: 2014; Event: eventDate: 2014-3-5; year: 2014; month: 3; day: 5; Record Level: language: english; collectionID: urn:lsid:biocol.org:col:34252; basisOfRecord: PreservedSpecimenGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordNumber: Hoyle, A.C. 491; recordedBy: Hoyle, A.C.; lifeStage: adult; preparations: Native; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:669541-1; scientificName: Raphiavinifera; kingdom: Plantae; class: Magnoliopsida ; order: Arecales; family: Arecaceae; genus: Raphia; specificEpithet: vinifera; scientificNameAuthorship: P.Beauv.; Location: continent: Africa; country: Sudan; stateProvince: Lol State; locality: Boro River, W and N.W. of Sa'id Bundas ; decimalLatitude: 8.505848; decimalLongitude: 24.669303; geodeticDatum: WGS84; Identification: identifiedBy: Mogue Kamga, S.; dateIdentified: 2019; Event: eventDate: 1939-1-22; year: 1939; month: 1; day: 22GoogleMaps 

Description

Acaulescent palm 7-10 m high overall (including leaves), clustering; dead leaf sheaths persistent, remains of leaf bases near the ground formed through disintegration of leaf sheath, flat, scaly, dark brown. Leaves 10-12, 7-10 m long in total, arising directly from the ground, vertically and then arched downwards towards apex; sheath 80-90 cm long, petiole 3-5 m long; rachis 4-6 m long; pinnae 100-126 per side, 0.2-1.3 m long, 5-55 mm wide, irregularly arranged in 4 planes, arching downwards towards the apex, midrib and pinnae margins armed with spines 1-2 mm long but very few to absent on older leaves. Leaves subtending inflorescence reduced. Inflorescences 3 –4(– 5), pendulous or semi pendulous (nodding), 0.60-1.95 m long in total; young inflorescences light green to purple green, older ones light brown to grey-brown; rachis 0.45-1.20 m long, bearing numerous pronounced bracts rarely empty, almost completely covering the inflorescence, pinkish-brown abaxially (young) to light brown (older); rachillae in two orders: first order branches 50-60, 6-18 cm long, flabellate shaped, dorsi ventrally compressed, alternating in 2 rows on each side of the rachis, smooth; second order branches 60-64, 4-12 cm long, dorsi ventrally compressed, alternating in 2 rows on each side of first order rachillae, bud flattened, smooth; Flowers solitary, exerted, inserted in one row, rarely two on each side of second order rachillae, staminate flowers distal, pistillate flowers basal. Staminate flower: calyx fused, tubular, bearing three shallow lobes; corolla comprising 3 petals, 7-10 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, basally connate for 1/3 of their length, oblong, apex acuminate, margins entire, smooth, stiff; stamens 6-8. Pistillate flowers: calyx fused, tubular, bearing three very shallow lobes; corolla comprising 3 petals, 2-4 mm long, separate, basely attached, 3 pointed tips, acuminate, margins irregular, smooth; staminodial ring with 6-7 staminodes, 0.5-2 mm long, fused between them, adnate to petals for ca. 1 mm; anthers sagittate, 0.2-1.5 mm long; gynoecium 3-5.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, ovary ca. 2.8-5.3 mm, 1.3-1.9 mm wide, ovoid to ovate long, completely covered with scales, developing at 3/4 height of the gynoecium, larger scales at mid portion to base; style absent or very short; stigma ca. 1 mm long, papillae not observed (flowers young). Fruits ellipsoid, oblong to obovoid, 6-9 cm long, 2.5 (young) -5 (mature) cm large, pointed beak 3.7-4.5 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide; (usually wider towards the beak), scales 8-10 rows (usually 9); seed 1 oblong, 2.5-7 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, with ruminated endosperm ( Fig. 5View Figure 5).

Distribution

Raphia vinifera  is mainly distributed in the Northwest, West and Adamaoua regions of Cameroon, where it is very abundant and even cultivated. Fewer botanical collections are known from the Delta state of Nigeria, Central African Republic and South Sudan ( Fig. 6View Figure 6). One specimen from August Chevalier (Chevalier s.n., 1908 [P01794200], see Fig. 2View Figure 2) is marked as "Soudan Français [now Mali] ou Guinée Française?”. Chevalier (1932) documents the presence of R. vinifera  in "Soudan Français”, so it is possible that this specimen is from Mali. We were not able to geolocate this specimen, although it seems possible it was collected close to Bamako (Kita). The literature also documents the presence of this species in several other West African regions or countries for which we did not locate specimens: the Mambillen Mountains in the Gongola state in south-eastern Nigeria ( Otedoh 1982, Tuley 1995), Mali (Bamako, Kita), Burkina Faso (Sikasso, Bobo-Dioulasso), Ivory Coast, Benin [Bas-Dahomey] ( Chevalier 1932, page 209). The Flore Analytique du Bénin ( Akoègninou et al. 2006) mentions three species of Raphia  including R. vinifera  . However, this is clearly the " vinifera  " as described by Otedoh (1982) and Tuley (1995), with a "trunk 6-10 m" (translated from French, page 60) and not the one we describe here. This description does not correspond to R. vinifera  as described here and no acaulescent Raphia  is mentioned. In addition, recent field trips by colleagues did not document R. vinifera  in Ivory Coast (F. Stauffer, pers. com.), Burkina Faso (F. Stauffer, pers. com.) and Benin (V. Salako, pers. com.). Thus, although the distribution of R. vinifera  in Central Africa is quite clear, its presence needs to be properly documented with recent botanical collections from West Africa.

Ecology

The yet uncertain knowledge of Raphia vinifera  's distribution leads to an incomplete understanding of its ecology. The species occurs mainly in the transition zone between lower Guinea and the Guineo-Sudanian bioregion in the western highlands of Cameroon and the Guineo-Sudanian bioregion ( Fig. 6View Figure 6). The species mainly occurs in open habitats, growing along streams and generally forming monodominant stands. It is cultivated in the West and North West regions of Cameroon where it occurs between 1500 m and 1800 m, reaching 2000 m. In West Africa, R. vinifer  a is documented from sea level to 1400 m. The presence of the type specimen in the lowland Delta State in Nigeria suggests that R. vinifera  is not a strict mountain species. However, more field studies in West Africa are needed to precisely document the ecological characteristics of this species.

Conservation

The IUCN Red List documents both species, R. vinifera  and R. mambillensis  , as Least Concern (LC, Cosiaux et al. 2018). With our new circumscription of R. vinifera  (which inlcudes the name R. mambillensis  ), this status will probably remain unchanged, although a new full assessement should be conducted. More data are needed on its distribution and ecology from West Africa, including recent collections from other countries outside of Cameroon.

Notes

Raphia vinifera  belongs to the flabellate section as defined by Otedoh (1982) and not to the raphiate one as suggested by Otedoh (1982) and Tuley (1995). In addition, it does not correspond to the descriptions or illustrations provided by Russell (1965), Tuley and Russell (1966) or Russell (1968). In these later publications, R. vinifera  is confused with R. mannii  .

Raphia vinifera  is an acaulescent palm, with planar, characteristic fan-shaped partial inflorescences ( Figs 4View Figure 4, 5View Figure 5), with very prominent bracts completely or partially covering the partial inflorescence. The only other species with this type of inflorescence is the widespread R. farinifera  ( Otedoh 1982). The only other species with an acaulescent stem is R. regalis  Becc., a tierra firme species with erect inflorescences ( Tuley 1995, Stauffer et al. 2014).

Numerous names have been suggested as synonyms of R. vinifera  (e.g. R. mannii  , R. wendlandii  , R. diasticha  Burret), but these are not related to the species we describe here.

Fred Stauffer indicates that the specimen conserved at the M herbarium (M0208480, information on specimen) was made by extracting a few rachillea from the holotype in G.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Noctuidae

Genus

Raphia