Harmonicon oiapoqueae, Drolshagen, Bastian & Baeckstam, Christian M., 2011
Drolshagen, Bastian & Baeckstam, Christian M., 2011, Notes on the genus Harmonicon F. O. P. - Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) with description of a new species from French Guyana, ZooKeys 112, pp. 89-96 : 91-92
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Male holotype and 1 female paratype (SMNK) from Saint Georges, French Guiana, 3°56'56.12"N, 51°47'39.90"W (leg. T. Vinmann).
Other material examined:
PCD–33–306– 03 1 imm of Harmonicon oiapoqueae , same data as for holotype and paratype.
The specific epithet, a feminine genitive singular, refers to the Oiapoque river, which is close to the type locality.
Harmonicon oiapoqueae sp. n. can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the posterior pair of sternal sigilla being oval instead of circular. It furthermore differs from Harmonicon audeae by only one row of teeth on the tarsal claws of the pedipalp and from Harmonicon rufescens by a more stronly recurved, inverted U–shaped fovea and position and arrangement of cuspules on the basal inner corner of the maxillae. Harmonicon oiapoqueae sp. n. differs from Harmonicon audeae and Harmonicon rufescens by more slender legs III and IV in females and juveniles and legs I-IV in males. Furthermore, males can be distinguished from those of Harmonicon audeae by a shorter embolus and a wider bulbus [PL(100)/BD = 147] and the presence of a tubercle in the basal third of the lateral metatarsus I.
Colour in alcohol: carapace, legs and pedipalps mahagony brown, chelicerae red, opisthosoma grey. Carapace (length: 11.67; width: 10.38) covered with soft grey setae and longer, black setae in posterior thoracic area; margin with long, black setae and soft, silver setae; clypeus present, narrow; fovea slitlike, recurved, inverted U–shaped; striae marked. Chelicerae with two retrolateral bands of plumose setae and one dorsal band, broadening to full width of chelicerae distally; ventrally with one row of 9 teeth (1 –1–1–1– 5) on promargin; cheliceral furrow with a field of small basomesal teeth; retroventral base with isolated bristles. Maxillae with prolateral lyra consisting of 7 hookshaped bristles (as in the female paratype - viz. Fig. 6); ventrally with few cuspules on basal inner corner, number and arrangement different in both sides. Labium trapezoidal, without cuspules; labiosternal suture short and divided. Sternum with 3 pairs of sigilla: anterior pair at height of Co I, circular, medial pair at Co II, circular, posterior pair between Co III and IV, oval, largest; anterior and medial pairs almost equal in size. Legs long and slender (measurements and proportions in table 1), with all tarsi pseudosegmented (Ta IV missing). All present tarsi with dense and entire scopula; metatarsi also scopulated in apical third, but less dense. STC at Ta I and II truncated (maybe worn off), not curved; normal at Ta III, curved and long; all with few teeth; ITC short, without teeth. Ti I retroventrally at apex with megaspine (Fig. 4, 7); Mt I with a low, domed tubercle retroventrally in basal third (Fig. 7). Number and position of spines on legs different on both sides. Opisthosoma (length: 12.34; width: 7.15) with two pairs of spinnerets: PMS small, consisting of one segment (length: 3.96), widely separated from each other. PLS elongated, consisting of three segments: basal (length: 5.62), medial (length: 6.18), apical (length: 10.68) longest. Palpal bulb pyriform with relatively long, almost straight embolus (Figs 1, 2).
Colour in alcohol: resembles male holotype, but legs darker. Carapace (length: 13.26; width: 12.54) and opisthosoma (length: 17.37; width: 7.58) larger than that of holotype. Different from male holotype by the presence of one more labial cuspule and several more cuspules on basal inner corner of maxillae (Fig. 3). Chelicerae with more teeth on promargin (1 –1–1–1–1–1–1–1– 3). Lyra as in Fig. 6. Legs not as long and slender (measurements and proportions in table 1 in parenthesis). Pedipalpal tarsus with slight scopula, divided by two parallel rows of spiniform setae in apical third, becoming more irregular beyond apical third. Slight scopula on Ta I and II; divided by two parallel rows of spiniform setae. Mt I and II with scopula less dense only covering apical third, divided by two parallel rows of spiniform setae, becoming more irregular basally. Ta III like Ta I and II; Mt III without scopula, only with hairlike setae. Ta IV with only thin scopula and more setae, Mt IV like Mt III. Leg spination as in male holotype. Opisthosoma resembles male holotype, but with PMS (length: 3.27) more widely (by length of segment) seperated and basal segment of PLS (length: 5.12), medial (length: 4.44), apical (length: 8.55) slightly shorter. Vulva as in Fig. 5.
Although the number of lyra bristles varies during the development of this species, the paratype of Harmonicon oiapoqueae sp.nov. has more such bristles than the female holotype of Harmonicon audeae ; both specimens are of almost the same size.
According to Thomas Vinmann (pers. comm.), who collected the specimens examined, females build large sheetwebs of ca. 2 m2 which are attached to branches of trees and bushes. The sheetweb runs into a funnel which leads to a ca. 20 cm deep tube–shaped retreat. The burrow leads about 5 cm vertically into the ground and continues for ca. 10 cm at an angle of about 45°. At dusk the spiders come to the entrance of the funnel and wait for prey.
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