Sphyraena stellata, Morishita & Motomura, 2020

Morishita, Satoshi & Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2020, Sphyraena stellata, anew barracudafromthe Indo-Pacific, with redescriptionsofS. helleri Jenkins, 1901 and S. novaehollandiae Günther, 1860 (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae), Zootaxa 4772 (3), pp. 545-566: 552-564

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4772.3.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7092DA88-22A8-4606-9A77-235DA17263C4

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3843703

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/757B8797-FFE5-E849-FF06-FAD6DF5D01F7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sphyraena stellata
status

n. sp.

Sphyraena stellata   n. sp.

[New English name: Yellow-striped Barracuda; Japanese name: Hoso-kamasu]

( Figures 2C View FIGURE 2 , 4 View FIGURE 4 , 7–10 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 , 11 View FIGURE 11 C–F, 12; Tables 1, 2)

Sphyraena africana   (not of Gilchrist & Thompson): Senou 2014: 577, unnumbered fig. [Yoron-jima island, Amami Islands, Japan (based on KAUM–I. 55091)].

Sphyraena novaehollandiae   (not of Günther): Smith 1956: 40, fig. 1; Talwar & Kacker 1984: 86; Yoshino 1984: 121, pl. 106, fig. J. ( Japan); Senou 1997: 654, unnumbered figs. (Iriomote-jima island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan).

Sphyraena helleri   (not of Jenkins): Thinker 1978: 186, unnumbered figs. (Hawaiian Islands); Hoover 1993: 18, unnumbered fig. (Puako, Hawai’i Island, Hawaiian Islands); Randall et al. 1997a: 292 (Great Barrier Reef); Randall et al. 1997b: 60, pl. 19C (Ogasawara Islands, Japan); Senou 2001: 3693, unnumbered fig. (western Central Pacific); Senou et al. 2002: 230 [Hachijo-jima island, Izu Islands, Japan (based on 3 photographs, KPM-NR 8888, 9268, 11531); Randall 2005: 607, unnumbered fig. ( Marshall Islands); Randall 2007: 440, unnumbered figs. (Maui Island, Hawaii island, Hawaii Islands); Senou et al. 2007: 71 [Miyako Islands, Japan (based on 2 photographs, KPM-NR 68291, 68292); Randall & Cea 2011: 121, unnumbered fig. (Easter Island); Allen & Erdman 2012: 1038, unnumbered fig. ( Phoenix Islands); Senou 2013: 1639, unnumbered fig. (Pacific Ocean); Ikeda & Nakabo 2015: 222, PL 221-1 [Susami, Wakayama, Japan (based on WW 10902 (1))]; Koeda et al. 2016: 105, fig. 488. (Yonaguni-jima island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan); Jeong 2017: 57, unnumbered fig. [Kagoshima Bay, Kagoshima Pref., Japan (based on KAUM–I. 14726)]; Kimura et al. 2017: 170, fig. 4 [Kuchinoerabujima island, Osumi Islands, Japan (based on KYUM-PI 4959)]; Nakae et al. 2018: 334 [Amami-oshima island, Amami Islands, Japan (based on 2 specimens, KAUM–I. 108200, NSMT-P 131265)]. Senou 2019: 394, unnumbered figs. [Amami Islands, Japan (based on 3 specimens, KAUM–I. 55091, 108200, 122320)].

Holotype. KAUM–I. 122319, 437.0 mm SL, off Okidomari Port , Okinoerabu-jima island, Amami Islands, Japan, 27°24′16′′N, 128°32′57′′E, 20 m, line-fishing, J. Nakamura, 23 Oct. 2018. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. 40 specimens, 98.0–587.0 mm SL. MALDIVES: BPBM 34729 View Materials   , 415.0 mm SL, Maldives Islands . JAPAN: Honshu: FRLM   11241, 243.4 mm SL, Ago Bay, Shima , Mie Pref., 34°28′23′′– 34°28′38′′N, 136°75′43′′– 136°77′2′′ E, S. Kimura, 22 Aug. 1991; FRLM   28489, 293.6 mm SL, Ago Bay, Shima , Mie Pref., H. Nakamura, 28 Sep. 2001; FRLM   34109, 286.3 mm SL, Kumano-nada, Owase , Mie Pref., K. Tsumoto, 30Aug. 2007; FRLM   39546, 315.1 mm SL, Ago Bay, Shima , Mie Pref., 34°28′23′′– 34°28′38′′N, 136°75′43′′–136°77′2′′ E, D. Sasaki et al., 28 Oct. 2011; FRLM   40372, 283.6 mm SL, Ago Bay, Shima , Mie Pref., 34°28′23′′– 34°28′38′′N, 136°75′43′′–136°77′2′′ E, D. Sasaki et al., 6 Jan. 2012; FRLM   42172, 216.5 mm SL, Ago Bay, Shima , Mie Pref., 34°28′23′′– 34°28′38′′N, 136°75′43′′–136°77′2′′ E, S. Kimura et al., 12 Sep. 2012; FRLM 46606 View Materials   , 316.0 mm SL, Kumano-nada, Owase, Mie Pref., Y. Hibino, 15 Dec. 2013. Izu Islands : NSMT-P 131265   , 414.0 mm SL, Tori-shima island , 28°28′N, 129°28′E, 7 May 2017. Kyushu: KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 14726, 334.0 mm SL, off Izashiki Port, Kagoshima Bay , Kagoshima Pref., 31°05′N, 130°41′E, 30–40 m, set net, M. Yamada, 20 Jan. 2009; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 22798, 126.5 mm SL, Kasasa, Minamisatsuma , Kagoshima Pref., 31°25′44′′N, 130°11′49E, 27 m, set net, M. Itou, 11 Jun. 2009; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 120245, 275.4 mm SL, Uchinoura Bay, Kimotsuki, Kagoshima Pref., 31°17′29′′N, 131°06′59′′E, 40 m, set net, H. Hata et al., 13 Sep. 2018; Ryukyu Islands : KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 107721, 307.5 mm SL, off Osaki, Tanega-shima island, Osumi Islands , 30°39′N, 130°54′E, 10–15 m, roll net, FV An’ei-maru, 31 Aug. 2017; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 115064, 393.1 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115088, 412.1 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115846, 431.8 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115847, 466.3 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115848, 446.8 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115849, 430.0 mm SL, KAUM–I. 115850, 380.7 mm SL, off Kiriishi Port, Suwanose-jima island, Tokara Islands , 29°36′32′′N, 129°42′53′′E, 20 m, line-fishing, B. Jeong et al., 26 Apr. 2018; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 55091, 123.0 mm SL, Chabana Port, Yoron-jima island, Amami Islands , 27°02′57′′N, 128°24′19′′E, 0.5 m, night light, H. Hata, 30 Jun. 2013; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 65293, 421.0 mm SL, KAUM–I. 65294, 434.5 mm SL, off Okinoerabu-jima island, Amami Islands , 27°22′N, 128°34′E, Y. Sakurai, 28 Jun. 2014; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 108200, 280.4 mm SL, off Amami-oshima island, Amami Islands , 28°28′N, 129°28′E, T GoogleMaps   . Maekawa , 7 May 2016; KAUM–I   . 122320, 411.0 mm SL, KAUM–I. 122321, 433.5 mm SL, off Okidomari Port, Okinoerabu-jima island, Amami Islands , 27°24′16′′N, 128°32′57′′E, 20 m, line-fishing, K. Uehara, 23 Oct. 2018; NSMT-P 103279 GoogleMaps   , 451.0 mm SL, Amami-oshima island, Amami Islands , 28°28′N, 129°28′E, 19 Jul. 2010, Purchased at Naze Fish Market; KAUM–I GoogleMaps   . 132237, 412.4 mm SL, KAUM–I. 132243, 405.9 mm SL, Tomari, Naha , Okinawa, Y. Sakurai, 6 Jul. 2019. JOHANSTON ATOLL: BPBM   3837, 449.5 mm SL, no further locality data, 1923. MARSHALL ISLAND: USNM 140958 View Materials   , 2 specimens, 99.8–100.7 mm SL, Rigili Island, Eniwetok Atoll , nightlight, L.P. Schultz & F. Cali, 25 May 1946. PHOENIX ISLANDS: BPBM 25533 View Materials   , 98.4 mm SL, Hull Island , nightlight, 5 Aug. 1950. FIJI: BMNH 1930.8   . 5.15, 437.3 mm SL, no further locality data. FRENCH POLYNESIA: MNHN 1980-0088 View Materials   , 440.0 mm SL, Rangiroa Island, Tuamotu Islands ; BPBM 6384 View Materials   , 2 specimens, 383.0–436.0 mm SL, Tahiti Island, Society Islands , J.E. Randall, 3 Sep. 1967, fish market. PITCAIRN ISLANDS: BPBM 16600 View Materials   , 587.0 mm SL, north side of Oeno Atoll , 13 m, spear, J.E. Randall, 18 Dec. 1970; BPBM 36427 View Materials (body in two pieces)   , Henderson Island , T   . Brooke , 7 Dec. 1991. EASTER ISLAND: BPBM 39335 View Materials (head and tail only)   , Motu Nui , 30 m, spear, M. Garcia, 7 Feb. 1986   .

Diagnosis. A species of Sphyraena   ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ) characterized by the following combination of characters: one gill raker on first gill arch; pelvic-fin insertion located slightly before vertical through first dorsal-fin origin; pored lateral-line scales 134–141 (modally 137), total lateral-line scales 139–148 (146); scales above and below lateral line 15–17 (15) and 14–16 (15), respectively; snout comparatively short, its length 13.6–15.8 (mean 14.4) % SL; upper jaw short, its posterior tip not reaching to below anterior nostril ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ), its length 10.0–12.2 (10.8) % SL; eye small, orbit diameter and depth 4.3–7.0 (4.9) % and 3.9–5.6 (4.5) % SL, respectively; anal-fin base shortish, its length 6.9–8.1 (7.5) % SL; last dorsal- and anal-fin ray lengths 4.0–5.6 (4.7) % and 3.6–5.6 (4.6) % SL, respectively; anus not close to anal-fin origin, anterior and posterior margins of anus to anal-fin origin 7.5–11.9 (9.9) % and 5.2–8.3 (6.8) % HL, respectively; head sensory canal pores on suborbital area simple or poorly branched, their lowermost parts not close to lacrimal bone margin, large smooth area lacking canal pores present on mid-margin of lacrimal bone ( Figs. 2C View FIGURE 2 , 6 View FIGURE 6 ); two yellow stripes on lateral body surface (remaining as black stripes in preserved specimens); and caudal fin gray.

Description. Counts and proportional measurements as percentages of SL are given in Table 1. Body elongate, cylindrical, moderately compressed anteriorly, progressively more compressed posteriorly. Dorsal profile rising slightly from snout tip to first dorsal-fin origin, horizontal to second dorsal-fin origin, thereafter gently lowering to caudal-fin base. Ventral profile of head and body lowering from lower-jaw tip to pelvic-fin insertion, almost parallel to body axis from pelvic-fin insertion to anal-fin origin, thereafter rising to lowermost point of caudal-fin base. Second dorsal-fin origin just above anal-fin origin. Head large, conical. Eye and pupil round, lateral on head; orbit elliptical. Nostrils close to each other, located anterior to orbit. Anterior nostril rounded, located slightly below uppermost point of orbit. Posterior nostril semicircular, short flap on anterior edge. Lower jaw longer than upper jaw. Upper jaw short, posterior tip not reaching to below anterior nostril (reaching to anterior nostril in specimens less than ca. 200 mm SL). Upper jaw with a single row of numerous small teeth; 2 pairs of large, recurved, caniniform teeth on symphysis of premaxillary, anterior pair shorter than posterior pair. Lower jaw with a single row of spaced teeth, several anterior teeth smaller; a single large, slightly recurved, caniniform tooth on symphysis of dentary; all jaw teeth ankylotic. Palatine with a single row of irregularly sized caniniform teeth. Vomer toothless. Posterior opercular margin rounded, located anterior to uppermost point of pectoral-fin insertion. Branchial membrane on each side joined distally. Pectoral-fin insertion slightly below lateral-median line of body; posterior tip pointed, failing to reach vertical line through pelvic-fin insertion; uppermost ray short, rudimentary. First spine of first dorsal fin longest (second spine in some specimens), last spine shortest and joined to dorsum by fin membrane. Second dorsal fin somewhat falcate, anterior margin rising from fin origin to posterior tip of second fin ray, distal margin concave; first ray unbranched, other rays branched; last ray elongated. Posterior tip of depressed pelvic fin extending to vertical through last spine origin of first dorsal fin; all pelvic-fin rays branched, first ray longest. Anus oval, long longitudinally, positioned anterior to anal-fin origin. Anal fin somewhat falcate, anterior margin lowering from fin origin to posterior tip of second fin ray, distal margin concave; first spine of anal fin short, rudimentary; first ray unbranched, other rays branched; last ray elongated. Caudal peduncle compressed. Caudal fin forked, without a pair of small lobes on central margin. Lateral line continuous, slightly downward from uppermost point of opercle to point just above anal-fin base end, thereafter parallel to body axis. Body, including ventral surface from isthmus to anal-fin origin and pectoral-fin base, covered with cycloid scales. Anterior half of head without scales, except for opercular area covered with small cycloid scales and mandible with row of 4–6 embedded scales. Pelvic and anal fins and axillary region of pectoral fin lacking scales. Upper and lower gill arches with rough platelets; single gill raker long, slender and rough. Opercular gills present. Swimbladder present.

Coloration in life and fresh ( Figs. 7 View FIGURE 7 A–E, 8): Coloration of holotype (KAUM–I. 122319; Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ) presented first, followed by paratypes (KAUM specimens) (if different). Head and body dorsally yellowish-greenish-silver (blackish), ventrally whitish-silver. Two narrow yellow stripes on lateral body surface; upper line from upper margin of opercle to center of caudal-fin base, on lateral-line scales; lower line from uppermost point of pectoral-fin insertion to lower caudal-fin base. Jaws and lips whitish-silver. Pupil black. Pectoral fin darkish transparent, a small black blotch on uppermost point of pectoral-fin base. Spines of first dorsal fin whitish-gray. Spines and rays of second dorsal fin darkish gray; membrane darkish transparent. Spines and rays of pelvic fin white, membrane whitish translucent (rarely with a small black blotch on pelvic-fin insertion). Anal-fin spines whitish; membrane whitish translucent. Caudal fin gray.

Coloration in alcohol ( Fig. 7F View FIGURE 7 ): Body dark brown dorsally, elsewhere pale brown. Two blackish lateral stripes (somewhat indistinct). A black blotch on uppermost point of pectoral-fin base. (A small indistinct black blotch on pelvic-fin insertion in some specimens). All spines and rays milky white.

Distribution. The new species is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ), examined voucher specimens having been collected from the Maldives, southern Japan, including the Ryukyu Islands, and Fiji and oceanic islands in the Pacific Ocean ( Johnston Atoll, Marshall Island, Phoenix Islands, French Polynesia, Pitcairn Islands, and Easter Island). The species has also been recorded from Madagascar, northeastern Australia, and the Hawaiian Islands ( Smith 1956; Thinker 1978; Hoover 1993; Randall et al. 1997a; Randall 2007).

Etymology. The specific name stellata   is derived from Latin meaning starry, referring to the two yellow lateral stripes on the body.

Comparisons. The species group within Sphyraena   characterized by a single gill raker on the first gill arch, currently includes the following six valid species: Sphyraena acutipinnis Day, 1876   , S. africana Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909   , S. helleri   , S. novaehollandiae   , S. stellata   and S. waitii Ogilby, 1908   ( Senou 2001, 2013; Fricke et al. 2019; this study). The species treated here ( S. helleri   , S. novaehollandiae   , and S. stellata   ) are clearly separated from the other species in having the pelvic-fin insertion located slightly before a vertical through the first dorsal-fin origin [vs. located behind such a vertical or (rarely) just below the first dorsal-fin origin], and the posterior tip of the upper jaw not reaching to below the posterior nostril (vs. reaching beyond the posterior nostril).

Scale counts are also useful for identification of species of Sphyraena   ( Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005; Morishita et al. 2020a, b). Compared with S. helleri   and S. novaehollandiae   , S. stellata   exhibits the highest numbers of pored and total lateral-line scales [viz., 134–141 (modally 137) and 139–148 (146), respectively in S. stellata   vs. 121–127 and 132–134, respectively in S. helleri   and 120–138 and 127–146, respectively in S. novaehollandiae   : Tables 1, 2]. Scale count above the lateral line are also an important diagnostic character for the aforementioned species [viz., scales above lateral-line 14–16 (15) in S. stellata   vs. 12–13 in S. helleri   , and 9–11 (10) in S. novaehollandiae   : Tables 1, 2].

The diagnostic importance of head sensory canal pores is well established in many fish families (e.g., Gobiidae   and Gobiescoidae) ( Akihito et al. 2013; Fujiwara et al. 2018) and we found it helpful for distinguishing between species of Sphyraena   . Among S. helleri   , S. novaehollandiae   , and S. stellata   , only S. novaehollandiae   has finely branched canals on the suborbital region, whereas the other species have simple canals (sometimes weakly branched) ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 , 6 View FIGURE 6 , 9 View FIGURE 9 ). Although the lowermost parts of such canals on the suborbital region are very close to the lacrimal bone margin in S. helleri   and S. novaehollandiae   , those of S. stellata   showed greater separation from the margin ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 , 3 View FIGURE 3 , 6 View FIGURE 6 , 9 View FIGURE 9 ). Additionally, S. stellata   is unique in having a large smooth area lacking canal pores on the mid-margin of the lacrimal bone ( Figs. 2C View FIGURE 2 , 9 View FIGURE 9 ).

Sphyraena helleri   differs from S. novaehollandiae   and S. stellata   by having a larger eye, and longer snout and upper jaw in similarly sized individuals [viz., orbit diameter and depth 4.8–5.9% and 4.8–5.6% SL, respectively, in S. helleri   (vs. 3.4–5.4% and 3.3–4.9% SL, respectively, in S. novaehollandiae   and S. stellata   > 200 mm SL: Fig. 10B, C View FIGURE 10 ); snout length 15.0–16.4% SL (vs. 12.2–14.9% SL: Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ), upper-jaw length 12.8–12.9% SL (vs. 9.2–11.3% SL: Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 ), and posterior tip of upper jaw reaching to or beyond anterior nostril (vs. not reaching to below anterior nostril: Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 )].

Sphyraena novaehollandiae   can be distinguished from S. helleri   and S. stellata   in having two additional unique characters: longer anal-fin base, its length 7.6–9.2 (mean 8.5) % SL [vs. 6.8–7.5 % SL in S. helleri   and 6.9–8.1 (7.5) % SL in S. stellata   : Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 A–D) and yellowish-gray caudal fin (vs. gray in S. helleri   and S. stellata   ). In addition, S. novaehollandiae   has slightly shorter posteriormost dorsal and anal fin rays than S. stellata   , with lengths 3.6–4.5 (4.0) % and 3.3–4.3 (3.9) % SL, respectively vs. 4.0–5.6 (4.7) % and 3.6–5.6 (4.7) % SL, respectively, in the latter ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 ).

Additionally, S. stellata   has two other distinguishing characters: longer distance from anterior and posterior margins of anus to anal-fin origin 7.5–11.9 (9.9) % and 5.2–8.3 (6.8) % HL, respectively [vs. 6.5–8.2 % and 4.1–4.9 % HL, respectively, in S. helleri   and 5.8–8.0 (6.9) % and 3.1–5.1 (4.0) % HL, respectively, in S. novaehollandiae   : Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 A–C, E–F], and two yellow stripes on the lateral body surface (remaining as black stripes in preserved specimens) (vs. lateral body surface without stripes or bands in S. helleri   and S. novaehollandiae   : Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 5 View FIGURE 5 , 7 View FIGURE 7 ).

Comparative material examined. Sphyraena acutipinnis   : ZSI-F 1599, holotype, 452.0 mm SL, Sind, Pakistan   . Sphyraena africana   : SAM 10149 View Materials , holotype, 187.6 mm SL, Durban , KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa   . Sphyraena waitii   : CSIRO H 7281-08 View Materials , 262.1 mm SL, Queensland, Australia   .

FRLM

Faculty of Fisheries, Mie University

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

BPBM

Bishop Museum

SAM

South African Museum

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Sphyraenidae

Genus

Sphyraena

Loc

Sphyraena stellata

Morishita, Satoshi & Motomura, Hiroyuki 2020
2020
Loc

Sphyraena africana

Senou, H. 2014: 577
2014
Loc

Sphyraena helleri

Senou, H. 2019: 394
Nakae, M. & Motomura, H. & Hagiwara, K. & Senou, H. & Koeda, K. & Yoshida, T. & Tashiro, S. & Jeong, B. & Hata, H. & Fukui, Y. & Fujiwara, K. & Yamakawa, T. & Aizawa, M. & Shinohara, G. & Matsuura, K. 2018: 334
Jeong, B. 2017: 57
Kimura, Y. & Hibino, Y. & Miki, R. & Minetoma, T. & Koeda, K. 2017: 170
Koeda, K. & Hibino, Y. & Yoshida, T. & Kimura, Y. & Miki, R. & Kunishima, T. & Sasaki, D. & Furukawa, T. & Sakurai, M. & Eguchi, K. & Suzuki, H. & Inaba, T. & Uejo, T. & Tanaka, S. & Fujisawa, M. & Wada, H. & Uchiyama, T. 2016: 105
Ikeda, H. & Nakabo, T. 2015: 222
Senou, H. 2013: 1639
Allen, G. R. & Erdman, M. V. 2012: 1038
Randall, J. E. & Cea, A. 2011: 121
Randall, J. E. 2007: 440
Senou, H. & Kobayashi, Y. & Kobayashi, N. 2007: 71
Randall, J. E. 2005: 607
Senou, H. & Shinohara, G. & Matsuura, K. & Furuse, K. & Kato, S. & Kikuchi, T. 2002: 230
Senou, H. 2001: 3693
Randall, J. E. & Allen, G. R. & Steene, R. C. 1997: 292
Randall, J. E. & Ida, H. & Kato, K. & Pyle, R. L. & Earle, J. L. 1997: 60
Hoover, J. P. 1993: 18
Thinker, S. W. 1978: 186
1978
Loc

Sphyraena novaehollandiae

Senou, H. 1997: 654
Talwar, P. K. & Kacker, R. K. 1984: 86
Yoshino, T. 1984: 121
Smith, J. L. B. 1956: 40
1956