Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu

Cao, Huan-Xi, La Salle, John & Zhu, Chao-Dong, 2014, A new species of Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Qinghai Province, China, ZooKeys 417, pp. 45-55 : 48-52

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Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Hymenoptera Eulophidae

Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu sp. n. Figs 1-3

Material examined.

Holotype 1♀; Paratypes: 8♀, 4♂. China: Qinghai Province, Dulan County, 2458 Km milestone locality on G109 national highway (35°53.782'N, 97°47.106'E), 3060m; Host moth: Micrurapteryx sophorivora ( Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae ); Host plant: Thermopsis lanceolata ( Fabaceae ); 29.VII. 2013, coll. Huan-Xi CAO.


Antenna (Fig. 3d) with fuscate setae on flagellum and pedicel in dorsal view. Mesosoma (Figs 1a-d) yellow with black patterns and markings except pronotum and lateral lobes of mesoscutum pale yellow. A narrow median black stripe extends the whole length of mesosoma excluding neck. Forewing (Fig. 3e) hyaline with large bare areas and fuscate parastigma and stigmal vein in contrast to light colored marginal and postmarginal veins. Stigma long and slightly curved, with uncus near its apex. This new species can be distinguished from the other Asian species by the black marking pattern on the gastral tergites (Figs 1a-d), on which there are three black spots on Gt6 and Gt7 respectively in female, and markings on Gt7 are reduced into one median black spot in male.

The key provided here will differentiate Zagrammosoma dulanense from other Asian species; it can be distinguished from any New World species with even vaguely similar body coloration by the following characters of the forewing: surface of forewing (Fig. 3e) completely hyaline and without dark markings except for a very small patch near stigma, stigmal vein (particularly at base) and parastigma bordering marginal vein with dark areas in contrast to light colored marginal and postmarginal veins.


Female. Body length 2.0-3.1 mm.

Color. Body yellow with black stripes and spots (Fig. 1 b–d).

Frons yellow with two sets of short black stripes laterally extending from below the flange of vertex to upper lateral eye margin (Fig. 2b). Occipital foramen with a black spot. Two pairs of dark stripes diverging from occipital foramen, one pair diverging upward to the anterior ocellus, truncated into two pieces by posterior ocelli, and the other pair proceeding ventrally and curving antero-dorsally to meet ventral eye margin (Fig. 2a). Antenna yellow, scape with a oblique black stripe on dorsal surface, pedicel with a black spot basally on dorsal surface (Fig. 3d).

Pronotal collar and lateral lobe of mesoscutum pale yellow. A black stripe extending from base of pronotum to apex of scutellum medially, forming a reverse triangle on dorsellum. Two enlarged dark spots anterolaterally on mesoscutum, which are partially visible through the pronotum which overlaps them. Mesoscutum with dark stripe bordering axilla. Two parallel black stripes on lateral lobe of mesoscutum in lateral view. Acropleuron and upper mesepimeron with a dark stripe respectively; sometimes the one on upper mesepimeron truncated into two short parts. The border of metapleuron covered by dark stripe. Dark stripes along notauli and scuto-scutellar suture. Two dorsolateral dark stripes on scutellum, slightly diverging anteriorly and fused posteriorly. Lateral panel of metanotum with short black curved stripe. Propodeum with a dark stripe along the anterior margin and a W-shaped dark marking below it; the median line of “W” bold basally and apically, reaching the anterior margin.

Metasoma yellow with black coloration pattern (Fig. 1 b–d). Black markings on Gt1-Gt5 extend postero-laterally and develop the forms of “W” with straight or arched stripes below them; sometimes these stripes absent. Markings on Gt6 and Gt7 reduced to three black spots respectively.

Wings hyaline; vein pale yellow with the exception of fuscate parastigma and STV; SMV with a black line on it; humeral plate and tegula with one dorsal dark spot respectively. Legs (Fig. 3 a–c) yellow; middle and hind coxae with dark dorsal spot; hind femur with black stripe on dorsal surface extending from base approximately three quarters the length of femur, and a black spot near apex of femur.

Head: Head (Fig. 2 a–b) nearly quadrate in anterior view, with numerous short white setae. Mandible brown apically. Vertex with several scattered black setae dorsally, vaulted between compound eyes. Face with small and scattered white setae, difficult to see due to the coloration pattern. Eyes bare. Toruli placed slightly above the level of lower eye margin. Relative measurements: POL 12, OOL 8.

Antenna: Antenna (Fig. 3d) with two anelli, two funicular segments and a 3-segmented club. The first funicle slightly longer than the second segment with ratio of length 11/9; the first funicle slightly longer than its width, the second segment as long as wide. Ratios of the length of three club segments: 8/6/6; the second club segment more transverse. All segments excluding scape and anelli setose with several fuscate setae in dorsal view. Longitudinal sensilla present on all funicular and club segments.

Mesosoma: Mesosoma (Fig. 1 b–d) with fine reticulate sculpture dorsally and laterally, and several short white setae scattered on the midlobe of mesoscutum. Notaulus curving to meet axilla. Scutellum with 2 pairs of long white setae. Lateral panel of metascutum smooth; dorsellum large, triangular, the tip pointed. Propodeum with fine reticulate sculpture, callus with some white erect setae, spiracle small and round.

Metasoma: Metasoma with fine reticulate sculpture, pointed apically. Short white setae uniformly distributed on metasoma. Metasoma subequal in length with mesosoma, and slightly wider. Length ratio of metasoma/mesosoma: 100/105; width ratio of metasoma/mesosoma: 60/55. Petiole very short and transverse, not visible in dorsal view. Three dark cercal setae present, which are slightly different in length. Tips of ovipositor sheath visible dorsally.

Legs. Legs (Figs 3 a–c) with numerous setae on tibiae and tarsi. Tibial spur on each leg shorter than basitarsus, particularly on fore leg.

Forewing: Forewing (Fig. 3e) length 1.5-1.8 mm, with large bare areas extending from base of basal cell to STV except for several admarginal setae on ventral surface of wing below MV. Costal cell with several pale setae on its dorsal surface. SMV with 5-10 dorsal setae, MV with a row of black setae. SMV longer than MV; PMV shorter than STV. Relative lengths of veins: SMV/MV/PMV/STV: 60/40/10/19. Several black setae on STV, stigma long and slightly curved, with uncus near its apex. The triangular area on wing surface between PMV and STV bare. Speculum open. Basal setal line absent. Cubital setal line absent at base, and its three or less setae extend into speculum. Subcubital line very close to the margin of forewing.

Variation: Apart from different body sizes of specimens, the main variation is in the color pattern, particularly on propodeum and metasoma. On propodeum, the lateral arms of W-shaped markings may not connect to the posterior transverse marginal stripe. On metasoma, variations include changes in thickness of stripes and whether the black transverse stripes below the W-shaped dark markings exist, and if exist, whether connecting to the W-shaped dark markings. Occasionally, there is a small dark spot between the toruli.

Male: Smaller than female. Body length 1.8-2.3 mm. Forewing length 1.3-1.6 mm. Antenna with numerous setae on flagellar segments, more setose than that of female. The significant difference between female and male lies in the pattern of stripes on metasomal tergites, which are often paler and less extensive than that of female (Fig. 1a). Gt7 shorter than other metasomal tergites by comparison, and markings on it reduced to one black spot. Genitalia protruding in dorsal view.

Biology: The new species has been reared from the pupae of Micrurapteryx sophorivora Kuznetzov & Tristan ( Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae ) on Thermopsis lanceolata R. Brown ( Fabaceae ).

Gençer and Seven (2005) reared 6 eulophid species ( Baryscapus nigroviolaceus , Cirrospilus pictus , Necremnus croton , Neochrysocharis arvensis , Neochrysocharis formosa , Pnigalio sp.) and one pteromalid ( Pteromalus sp.) from Micrurapteryx sophorivora mining Robinia pseudoacacia ( Fabaceae ) in Turkey.

The host plant is toxic and can cause livestock poisoning, but has also been used as a Chinese medicine plant ( Zhu and Kirkbride 2006). Adults emerged from the host moth throughout August 2013, with fewer female specimens reared in September, while three males were collected in October. To our surprise, another female was captured from the dry host plant kept in the lab until mid May, 2014.


China: Qinghai Province.


This species is named for the locality in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, where the host plant, moth and type specimens were collected.