Hoplobatrachus Peters 1863

Duszynski, Donald W., Bolek, Matthew G. & Upton, Steve J., 2007, Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of amphibians of the world, Zootaxa 1667 (1667), pp. 1-77: 27-28

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Hoplobatrachus Peters 1863


Host genus Hoplobatrachus Peters 1863  

(4 spp.)

Eimeria terraepokotorum Jirků and Modrý 2006a   ( Fig. 9) Type host: Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Günther 1858)   , African tigrine frog.

Other hosts: None reported to date.

Type locality: AFRICA: Kenya, Nginyang , Rift Valley Province (01° 09’ 33” N, 37° 15’ 47” E) GoogleMaps   .

Geographic distribution: AFRICA: Kenya, Nginyang.

Description of sporulated oocyst: Oocyst shape: variable both in size and shape, ovoidal to broadly ellipsoidal; number of walls: 1; wall thickness: ~0.6; wall characteristics smooth and colorless; L x W: 20.2 x 16.0 (18–24.5 x 13.5–18.5); L/W ratio: 1.3 (1.1–1.4); M and PG: Absent; OR present; OR characteristics: spherical to subspherical (7–11) composed of spherical to subspherical mass of granules resembling those forming SR. Distinctive features of oocyst: colorless, thin, smooth wall, granules of the OR are of 2 types, elongate ones and distinctly finer spherical granules.

Description of sporocyst and sporozoites: Sporocyst shape: ovoidal; L x W: 9.8 x 7.2 (8.5–11.5 x 6–8); L/W ratio: not stated; sporocyst pole, opposite to SB is usually slightly pointed; SB: present at 1 end (1.5–2 x 0.5–0.7); SSB and PSB: absent; SR: present; SR characteristics: composed of numerous granules completely filling space between SZ or forming a subspheroidal mass; granules of the SR are of 2 types: elongate ones (2–2.5 x 1–1.5) and finer spheroidal granules (0.5–1); SZ: size not stated; finely granulated without visible striations, containing probably 2 RBs; RB usually spheroidal, (2–3 x 1.5–2); distinct N (2 x 2) located between the RBs. Distinctive features of sporocyst: granules of SR are of 2 types: elongate ones and finer spherical granules.

Prevalence: 2 of 5 (40%).

Sporulation: Exogenous.

Prepatent and patent periods: Unknown.

Site of infection: Epithelial cells of the entire small intestine, extranuclear.

Endogenous stages: Mature meronts were spheroidal to broadly ellipsoidal 8–12 x 5–8 and contained ~20, somewhat spirally arranged merozoites. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal or ellipsoidal, 16–19 x 13–17, and contained a few distinct wall-forming bodies (1.5–2). Microgamonts were ellipsoidal, 10–12 x 6– 9, containing numerous relatively thick-bodied microgametes.

Pathology: Unknown.

Materials deposited: Photosyntypes of oocysts in various stages of sporulation and hematoxylin and eosin (H &E) stained paraffin sections with endogenous stages, along with type-host liver in 95% ethanol, were deposited in the collection of the Department of Parasitology, University for Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czeck Republic (R 113/05). A voucher specimen of H. occipitalis   was deposited in the herpetological collection of the National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi (NMK A/4246).

Remarks: Only 3 other eimerians from anurans are similar enough to this species to be compared. Eimeria cyanophlyctis   ( Fig. 8) from India differs in having distinctly narrower (11 x 4–7 vs. 9.8 x 7.2 [8.5–11.5 x 6–8] in E. terraepokotorum   ), spindle-shaped sporocysts lacking SR ( Chakravarty & Kar 1952). Eimeria leptodactyli   ( Fig. 20) from South America, most closely resembling E. terraepokotorum   in oocyst and sporocyst size, however, they differ in the appearance of the OR. Eimeria streckeri   ( Figs. 13, 14, 55, 56) from North America differs in its oocyst shape (spheroidal), the presence of a distinct vacuole within the OR, and presence of an indistinct SB.