Hadronemidea Reuter

Forero, D., 2008, Revision And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Hadronema Group (Miridae: Orthotylinae: Orthotylini), With Descriptions Of New Genera And New Species, And Comments On The Neotropical Genus Tupimiris, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2008 (312), pp. 1-172 : 128-132

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Hadronemidea Reuter


Hadronemidea Reuter View in CoL View at ENA

Type species: Hadronemidea esau Reuter, 1908 (by monotypy).

Hadronemidea Reuter, 1908: 172 View in CoL [n. gen.]; Carvalho, 1958: 69 [catalog]; Schuh, 1995: 116 [catalog].

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the small, almost circular eyes, not reaching the anteri- or margin of the pronotum (figs. 3, 37A, 38A); the middle tibiae curved inward in males (figs. 37F, 38B); the first tarsal segment of the forelegs in males expanded laterally (fig. 38C); the vestiture composed of simple, erect, bristlelike setae (fig. 37D); the very long antennae (fig. 3); the absence of metathoracic scent-gland evaporatory area and peritreme (fig. 37B); the phallobase heavily sclerotized; the vesica with two spicules, right one short, left one long with two apicoventral ramifications (fig. 39); and the sclerotized part of the ductus seminis long, nearly reaching the apex of the right spicule (fig. 39).

Hadronemidea is unique among the genera of the Hadronema group by the small eyes removed from the anterior margin of the pronotum. Hadronemidea is most similar to Hadronema due to the dark coloration, the expanded first tarsal segment of the forelegs on males, and the bristlelike setae on dorsum, but it is easily distinguished from Hadronema by the apically constricted setae on the ventral part of the first tarsal segment of forelegs of males (fig. 38C), the right spicule of the vesica lateral to the left one (fig. 39), the longer sclerotized part of the ductus seminis (fig. 39), and the membranous anterior wall of females without any sclerotized areas (fig. 40).

REDESCRIPTION: Male: Large, elongate species, total length 4.95–5.56. COLORA- TION: Black with orange-red and white markings (fig. 3). HEAD: Black; clypeus basally with irregular shiny spots, sometimes inconspicuous; mandibular and maxillary plates black or brown, maxillary plates sometimes shiny; labrum dull or shiny; labium shiny black, first segment dull at middle; antennae black. THORAX: Collar black; anterior lobe of pronotum black, posterior lobe of pronotum orange-red, sometimes orange-red markings extending into lateral portions of anterior lobe and posterior lobe suffused anteriorly with black; scutellum black; proepisternum black; proepimeron orange-red, anteriorly black; meso- and metapleuron black; mesothoracic spiracle jet-black. Hemelytra: Clavus black; corium black, embolium white; cuneus black, external margin white; membrane dark brown, veins black. Legs: Black. ABDOMEN: Black, posterior margin of sternites weakly whitish. GENITALIA: Genital capsule black; parameres dark brown; proctiger pale, apically brown. SURFACE AND VESTI- TURE: Surface dull, beset with numerous small microtrichia; dark erect simple bristlelike setae on head, legs, and hemelytra (figs. 37A, D–F, 38A, B). STRUCTURE: HEAD (fig. 37A): Transverse, almost twice as wide as long, gently declivent, ovate in lateral view; clypeus gently protruding in dorsal view, vertical; frons convex; vertex from almost flat to weakly convex; frons and vertex beset with sparse long setae; transverse carina elevated but not strongly impressed, bearing bristlelike setae, more densely set next to eyes on an small weakly elevated area; mandibular and maxillary plates occupying about half the height of the head, apices rounded; gena with an oblique longitudinal area covered with long bristlelike setae extending from behind eyes down to buccula; gula long, as long as the buccula; eyes small, rounded in dorsal view, weakly ovate in lateral view, not reaching the anterior margin of pronotum; labrum almost as long as first labial segment or shorter, acute or acute at apex, nearly glabrous or densely covered by long simple setae; labium surpassing mesocoxa, segment I with long simple setae or nearly glabrous, II with dense long setae, or with sparse short setae, III–IV glabrous; antennae long, nearly as long as cuneusclypeal length (fig. 3), segment I weakly greater in diameter than II, II and III of approximately equal diameter, IV with the lesser diameter, segment II nearly three times as long as I, III equal in length to II, IV the shortest, III with or without a fringe of long hairs on apical third in males (fig. 38D). THORAX: Collar short; pronotum trapezoidal in dorsal view, inclined, anterior angles rounded, posterior angles broadly rounded, lateral margins convex, sometimes almost straight, carinate or not (figs. 37A, 38A), surface weakly rugose, small or prominent transverse protuberance anterior to posterior margin, transverse protuberance deflexed toward posterior margin; calli almost flat, not sharply differentiated from adjacent areas; mesoscutum covered by posterior margin of pronotum; scutellum triangular, nearly equilateral, disc weakly convex; proepisternum with numerous long bristlelike setae; proepimeron and remaining pleural sclerites nearly glabrous with only sparse simple setae; metepisternum covered with small microtrichia; metathoracic scent-gland evaporatory area absent (fig. 37B), only with a few ventral scattered units present; peri- treme absent; prosternum with long bristlelike setae on anterior margin (fig. 37A). Hemelytra: Long, surpassing apex of abdomen, parallel; clavus elevated with respect to corium and deflexed along claval suture; corium weakly deflexed laterally from medial fracture; cuneus weakly deflexed laterally, as wide as long; membrane about half as long as hemelytron. Legs: Coxae elongate with sparse bristlelike setae; trochanters oval with a few short setae; profemur and mesofemur subequal in length, metafemur longer, all straight and weakly compressed anteroposteriorly; profemur with short bristlelike setae; mesofemur with bristlelike setae on ventral surface, shorter than or as long as femur width, longest around the middle; metafemur with sparse short setae; pro- and mesotibia of approximate equal width and length, metatibia thinner and longer; protibia cylindrical, straight, barely expanded apically; mesotibia strongly or gently curved, weakly excavated anteriorly distally, with numerous long bristlelike setae, more abundant on ventral surface, from dense to very dense (figs. 37F, 38B); metatibia with bristlelike setae longer than width of tibia; protarsus with first segment expanded, covering apically the insertion of the second, ventral surface with long delicate tenent setae, apically constrict- ed, not greatly expanded (fig. 38C), segments I and III subequal in length, II the shortest; mesotarsal segment I shorter than III, II the shortest; metatarsal segments I and II subequal in length, III the longest; pretarsus as in figure 37C. ABDOMEN: Segments II–VIII beset with long bristlelike setae. GENITALIA: Genital capsule subtriangular (figs. 37E, 39), aperture small or medium-sized, reclined, weakly turned to the left (figs. 37E, 39); anterior margin of aperture well sclerotized or not (fig. 39); ventral right portion of genital capsule weakly caudad projected as a round blunt process (fig. 39); proctiger reaching apex of genital capsule (fig. 37E); cuplike sclerite barely reaching apex of genital capsule, U-shaped, right portion more dorsally and posteriorly produced than left one, bases wide or narrow, projected cephalad of supragenital bridge or barely so (fig. 39); supragenital bridge located above paramere insertions, heavily sclerotized (fig. 39); right paramere inserted barely above left relative to a horizontal plane (figs. 37E, 39); left paramere weakly or strongly curved, in latter case almost sickleshaped, apicoventral process blunt or acute (fig. 39); right paramere hatchet-shaped in medial view, body long, small flat acuminate process on dorsal angle directed medially, forming a concavity, paramere flattened and expanded distally, with numerous small tubercles, from rounded to more produced cephalad (fig. 39); phallotheca nearly cylindrical, without protuberances (fig. 39), dorsal and ventrodistal surfaces well sclerotized, weakly so on ventroproximal surface, opening directed to the left, strongly reclined, nearly oval-shaped; vesica with two wellsclerotized spicules, located next to each other, with no sclerotized connection between them (fig. 39); left spicule long, thin at base, enlarged distally, truncate and tuberculate apically, two preapical cephalad projections (rami) of equal or different lengths, enlarged or not, denticulate or not (fig. 39); right spicule short, about half as long as left, flattened laterally, enlarged basally, curved upward distally, apically flat or nearly cylindrical, expanded or not, variously denticulate (fig. 39); sclerotized part of ductus seminis long, barely longer than right spicule, situated at base of spicules (fig. 39).

Female: Similar to male, but larger and broader, total length 5.21–6.53. COLORA- TION: As in male (fig. 3). SURFACE AND VESTITURE: As in male. STRUCTURE: THORAX: Legs: Pro- and mesotibia cylindrical, of equal width, straight. GENITALIA: Subgenital plate subrectangular, apically truncate or rounded (fig. 40), reaching or barely so to middle of sternite VIII; base of ovipositor located at longitudinal midpoint of abdomen; inner margin of gonapophysis VIII symmetrical (fig. 40); interramal sclerites well sclerotized oblong (fig. 40); dorsal lobes of interramal sclerites long, medial margin almost straight, lateral margin gently curved or nearly straight on distal half, covered with numerous microtrichia, apex acute (fig. 40); sigmoid process and dorsal margin of interramal sclerites up to base of dorsal lobes covered with microtrichia (fig. 40); medial process neither distinct nor sclerotized; dorsal labiate plate without any sclerotized modified structures; sclerotized rings oblong, posterior edge produced or not, lateral margin recurved as a flaplike sclerite (fig. 40); accessory sclerite on anterolateral margin medium-sized, apically acute or enlarged (fig. 40); internal surface of dorsal labiate plate covered with microtrichia; anterior wall membranous (fig. 40).

DISTRIBUTION: In the United states from west Texas and southern New Mexico south to central Mexico across the Transverse Volcanic Axis (fig. 41).

HOST ASSOCIATIONS: Although most of the examined specimens of Hadronemidea lack detailed host-plant data, it is evident that most of the specimens have been associated with either Asteraceae or Fabaceae . This is similar to the associations found in Hadronema .

DISCUSSION: Gruetzmacher and Schaffner (1977) described H. echinata and included this species under a redefined Hadronema . Nevertheless, this species fits better with the new concept of Hadronemidea , rendering Hadronema as a monophyletic group.

The reduced evaporatory area is not exclusive of Hadronemidea . Aoplonemella and some species of Daleapidea also lack a distinctive evaporatory area. Hadronema has a reduced but still recognizable evaporatory area. It seems that species in the Hadronema group have a tendency toward this reduction. Other groups of Miridae have a similar reduction of the evaporatory area, for instance, Prepops Reuter and other members of the Resthenini (Mirinae) ( Schwartz, 1987), some Bryocorinae , and even some genera of Pentatomidae , as well as most Rhopalidae ( Carayon, 1971) .












Hadronemidea Reuter

Forero, D. 2008


Schuh, R. T. 1995: 116
Carvalho, J. C. M. 1958: 69
Reuter, O. M. 1908: 172
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