Monomorium pharaonis,

Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 62-64

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Monomorium pharaonis


Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linne, 1758)

Figs. 81-83.

Formica pharaonis Linne  HNS  , 1758:580.

Worker. Reddish yellow, head and alitrunk closely punctured, dull. Length 2-2.4 mm.

Queen. As worker but with larger eyes and enlarged alitrunk; mesonotum with narrow patch and gaster distinctly darkened posteriorly. Length: 4-4.8 mm.

Male. Black with yellowish appendages, femora and scapes darker. Wings transparent. Eyes very large. Head and alitrunk closely punctured and dull. Length: 3 mm.

Distribution. This is a cosmopolitan species spread by commerce all over the world. In North Europe it is frequently established in heated premises including bakehouses, laundries and hospitals. It has occurred in many places in Denmark, Sweden and Finland and is common in the British Isles where it has been recorded since 1828.

Biology. Colonies are very large, polygynous and polycalic often with several millions of individuals. Workers and queens forage in long trails and live by scavenging on food materials, dead animals and insects. Nests are often sited deep in foundations and are very difficult to eradicate by fumigation or insecticides.