Apochinomma Pavesi, 1881

Haddad, Charles Richard, 2013, A revision of the ant-like sac spider genus Apochinomma Pavesi 1881 (Araneae: Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region, Journal of Natural History 47 (39 - 40), pp. 2493-2529: 2496-2505

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2013.791933

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6C3FB178-FFF3-FFD3-FE3F-0592FB71078E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Apochinomma Pavesi, 1881
status

 

Apochinomma Pavesi, 1881  

Apochinomma Pavesi, 1881: 545   ; Dippenaar-Schoeman and Jocqué, 1997: 128; Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001: 326; type species: Apochinomma formicaeformis Pavesi, 1881   , by original designation.

Diagnosis

Apochinomma species   can be recognized by the elongate cephalothorax, which is usually more than twice as long as it is wide, sometimes with a median constriction; the small and widely spaced posterior eyes in a strongly recurved row, usually separated from each other by double the PME diameter or more; and the fusion of the intercoxal sclerites with the pleural bars between coxae II and III, and III and IV, and the absence of such a fusion between coxae I and II. Based on the arrangement of the posterior eyes and the heavy abdominal sclerotization, Apochinomma   may be most closely related to Aetius   , Serendib   and Sphecotypus   .

Description

Small to medium-sized spiders, 4.95–13.60 mm in length; carapace orange-brown to black, with black mottling and striae ( Figures 2A–J View Figure 2 , 3A–I View Figure 3 ); carapace surface finely to coarsely granulate, covered in short straight and feathery setae, with several long curved setae on clypeus and eye region ( Figures 4A–E View Figure 4 ); elongate oval, eye region broad, tapering posteriorly to pedicel, usually broadest at coxa II; fovea distinct, narrow and short, rarely absent. AER procurved or straight, AME approximately four-thirds of the ALE diameter; AME separated by approximately three-quarters their diameter, separated from ALE by approximately half the AME diameter; PER strongly recurved, PME slightly larger or smaller than PLE; PME usually closer to each other than to PLE; MOQ broader posteriorly than anteriorly. Chilum split, triangular, tapering distally, strongly sclerotized; cheliceral promargin with two or three teeth, retromargin with two teeth; scrappy seta absent; curved setae on cheliceral promargin finely plumose in males ( Figure 4F View Figure 4 ) and pectinate in females ( Figure 4G View Figure 4 ); endites straight laterally with distinct serrula comprising sharp, ventrally curved denticles ( Figure 4H View Figure 4 ), with dense maxillar hair tuft on mesal margins; labium slightly trapezoid, wider than long. Sternum longer than broad, elongate shield-shaped, slightly narrowed anteriorly ( Figure 4I View Figure 4 ); precoxal triangles present; intercoxal sclerites present between all coxal pairs; pleural bars fused to intercoxal sclerites between coxae II and III, and III and IV, isolated and not fused to intercoxal sclerites between coxae I and II. Leg formula 4123; legs with short spines, all segments except tarsi usually covered in feathery and straight setae ( Figures 5A–F View Figure 5 , 6A–D View Figure 6 ); retrocoxal window absent on coxa I; femora with several erect ventral setae ( Figure 5F View Figure 5 ); patellar indentation narrow, broad at proximal end ( Figure 6A, B View Figure 6 ); tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with several erect dorsal and lateral trichobothria with sunken basal plate ( Figure 5D, E View Figure 5 ); all metatarsi and tarsi, including female palpal tarsi, with several tiny pores ( Figure 6C–E View Figure 6 ), possibly involved in the release of pheromone-like molecules during contact with model ants; metatarsi scopulate distally ( Figure 6D View Figure 6 ), tarsi weakly scopulate along their entire length ( Figure 6F View Figure 6 ); tarsal organ not examined; paired tarsal claws short, situated laterally, with very dense claw tufts in between ( Figure 6F View Figure 6 ); metatarsi III and IV without terminal preening brush or comb. Abdomen pear-shaped, or elongate with a median constriction, anteriorly with petiolate elongation ( Figures 2A–J View Figure 2 , 3A–I View Figure 3 , 7A, B View Figure 7 ); dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized; in males nearly covering entire dorsum, fused to petiole, epigastric sclerite and post-epigastric sclerites; in females covering one-third to seven-eighths of the abdomen length, clearly separate from petiole, epigastric sclerite and post-epigastric sclerites ( Figure 3A–I View Figure 3 ); two pairs of weakly sclerotized dorsal sigilla present; epigastric region strongly sclerotized, venter with post-epigastric sclerites; ventral sclerite present in males, absent in all females except for A. tuberculata   sp. nov.; inframamillary sclerite present, distinct, fused to ventral sclerite in A. tuberculata   sp. nov.; dorsum and venter densely covered in feathery and fine straight setae ( Figure 7A– D View Figure 7 ). Spinnerets (only observed with scanning electron microscope in A. formicaeforme   ): ALS of male ( Figure 8A View Figure 8 ) with one major ampullate gland spigot, one nubbin and many piriform gland spigots; PMS of male ( Figure 8B View Figure 8 ) with one large minor ampullate gland spigot, one nubbin, one tartipore and several large aciniform gland spigots; PLS of male ( Figure 8C View Figure 8 ) with only aciniform gland spigots distinguishable; ALS of female ( Figure 8D View Figure 8 ) with two major ampullate gland spigots and many piriform gland spigots; PMS of female ( Figure 8E View Figure 8 ) with three large cylindrical gland spigots, one small minor ampullate gland spigot and several aciniform gland spigots; PLS of female ( Figure 8F View Figure 8 ) with two large cylindrical gland spigots and several aciniform gland spigots. Male palpal segments without apophyses; cymbium with spines prolaterally and ventrally, without distinct modified dorsal setae; embolus short and slightly thickened in males of the A. formicaeforme   species group ( Figures 7E View Figure 7 , 9A–C View Figure 9 ), less than one-quarter the length of the tegulum; embolus with broad base and long fine distal section in males of the A. decepta   species group ( Figure 9D, E View Figure 9 ), more than half the length of the tegulum; width of base and length and curvature of distal coil variable ( Figure 9A–E View Figure 9 ). Female epigyne with oblique or comma-shaped sclerotized epigynal ridges, covering or leading to lateral copulatory openings ( Figure 7F View Figure 7 ); copulatory ducts in the A. formicaeforme   species group directed medially and obliquely before entering ST II (e.g. Figure 10D View Figure 10 ); copulatory ducts in the A. decepta   species group (only known for A. decepta   sp. nov.) initially directed anteriorly, with multiple loops medially before entering ST II ( Figure 14D, E View Figure 14 ); ST II usually oval, connected broadly to posterior ST I that are either narrow or broad, longitudinal or diverging.

Key to the Afrotropical species of Apochinomma  

1. Males (♂ of A. tuberculata   sp. nov. unknown)............................ 2 Females (♀ of A. elongata   sp. nov. and A. parva   sp. nov. unknown)......... 6

2. Carapace in lateral view with slight median depression, abdomen without median constriction ( Figure 3A View Figure 3 ); embolus short, less than one-quarter of tegulum length ( A. formicaeforme   species group)......................... 3 Carapace in lateral view without median depression, abdomen with slight ( Figure 3F View Figure 3 ) to strong median constriction ( Figure 3H View Figure 3 ); embolus long, at least half tegulum length ( A. decepta   species group)............................ 5

3. Base of embolus broad; distal section of embolus directed retrolaterally ( Figure 9B View Figure 9 )............................................ A. malkini   sp. nov. Base of embolus narrow; distal section of embolus directed prolaterally ( Figure 9A, C View Figure 9 ).......................................................... 4

4. Basal section of embolus nearly straight in ventral view ( Figure 9A View Figure 9 ); carapace more than two times longer than broad....... A. formicaeforme Pavesi, 1881   Basal section of embolus distinctly curved in ventral view ( Figure 9C View Figure 9 ); carapace approximately 1.83 times longer than broad...... A. parva   sp. nov.

5. Embolus longer than tegulum ( Figure 15B View Figure 15 )............. A. elongata   sp. nov. Embolus approximately half as long as tegulum ( Figure 14A View Figure 14 )...................................................................... A. decepta   sp. nov.

6. Carapace in lateral view without median depression, abdomen with slight median constriction ( Figure 3G View Figure 3 ); entrance ducts of epigyne very long, with several loops before entering anterior spermathecae ( Figure 14D, E View Figure 14 )................................................................ A. decepta   sp. nov. Carapace in lateral view with slight median depression, abdomen without median constriction ( Figure 3B View Figure 3 ); entrance ducts of epigyne short, simple and without loops before entering anterior spermathecae ( A. formicaeforme   species group).......................................................... 7

7. Carapace texture coarsely granulate; fovea absent; abdomen with heartshaped ventral sclerite......................................................................................................... A. tuberculata   sp. nov. Carapace texture finely granulate; fovea present, short and narrow; abdomen without ventral sclerite, but two paired rows of tiny sclerites usually present between epigastric furrow and spinnerets................................. 8

8. Epigyne with comma-shaped ridges with lateral copulatory openings ( Figure 12C View Figure 12 ); copulatory ducts short, directed obliquely before entering anterior spermathecae ( Figure 12D View Figure 12 )..................... A. malkini   sp. nov. Epigyne with oblique ridges covering copulatory openings ( Figure 10C View Figure 10 ); copulatory ducts initially with sharp bend, directed transversely before entering anterior spermathecae ( Figure 10D View Figure 10 )................................................................................... A. formicaeforme Pavesi, 1881  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Corinnidae

Loc

Apochinomma Pavesi, 1881

Haddad, Charles Richard 2013
2013
Loc

Apochinomma

Deeleman-Reinhold CL 2001: 326
Dippenaar-Schoeman AS & Jocque R 1997: 128
Pavesi P 1881: 545
1881