Apochinomma decepta, Haddad, 2013

Haddad, Charles Richard, 2013, A revision of the ant-like sac spider genus Apochinomma Pavesi 1881 (Araneae: Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region, Journal of Natural History 47 (39 - 40), pp. 2493-2529: 2519-2522

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2013.791933

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5197683

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6C3FB178-FFEC-FFC0-FDEC-06E3FEFE0260

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Apochinomma decepta
status

sp. nov.

Apochinomma decepta   sp. nov.

( Figures 1C, D View Figure 1 , 2G, H View Figure 2 , 3F, G View Figure 3 , 9D View Figure 9 , 14A–E View Figure 14 )

Etymology

The specific name refers to the colouration and morphology of the spider that make it a deceptive mimic of ponerine ants.

Diagnosis

Males of the species share with A. elongata   sp. nov. the short tegulum and long fine embolus, but in A. decepta   sp. nov. the embolus is about half as long as the tegulum ( Figure 14A View Figure 14 ), whereas in A. elongata   sp. nov. the embolus is clearly longer than the tegulum ( Figure 15A View Figure 15 ). Females can be recognized from congeners by the very long winding entrance ducts of the female epigyne ( Figures 14D, E View Figure 14 ).

Male (holotype, Tembe, NCA 2002 / 369). Measurements: CL 4.52, CW 2.24, AL 4.85, AW 2.17, TL 9.55, FL 0.30, SL 3.85, SW 2.70, AME–AME 0.10, AME–ALE 0.05, ALE–ALE 0.44, PME–PME 0.21, PME–PLE 0.18, PLE–PLE 0.83, PERW 0.97, MOQAW 0.35, MOQPW 0.44, MOQL 0.48.

Length of leg segments: I 2.20 + 0.85 + 1.85 + 1.85 + 1.37 = 8.12; II 2.10 + 0.85 + 1.70 + 1.72 + 1.30 = 7.67; III 1.95 + 0.90 + 1.45 + 1.65 + 1.13 = 7.08; IV 2.69 + 1.05 + 2.34 + 2.77 + 1.33 = 10.18.

General appearance in Figure 2G View Figure 2 , of subadult male in Figure 1C View Figure 1 , lateral view in Figure 3F View Figure 3 . Carapace elongate oval, eye region broad, tapering posteriorly to pedicel, broadest at coxa II; raised from eye region, highest at one-third carapace length, nearly level in midsection, declining gradually in posterior one-third ( Figure 3F View Figure 3 ); surface finely granulate, covered in short straight white setae and sparse white feathery setae; several long erect setae on clypeus, in and behind eye region; fovea short, narrow, between one-half and two-thirds carapace length; carapace dark red-brown with extensive black mottling and distinct striae. All eyes with black rings; AER procurved, medians larger than laterals; AME separated by distance equal to three-quarters their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance slightly larger than one-third AME diameter; clypeus height equal to two and one-quarter times AME diameter; PER strongly recurved, medians very slightly larger than laterals; PME separated by distance slightly less than twice their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to one and two-thirds times PME diameter; CW: PERW = 2.31: 1. Chelicerae black, orange prolaterally distally, with short straight white setae and scattered long erect setae on anterior surface; three teeth on promargin, distal tooth smallest, median tooth largest; median tooth closer to distal tooth than to proximal tooth; retromargin with two teeth, distal tooth close to fang base, slightly smaller than proximal tooth; endites dark brown, orange prolaterally, cream at maxillar hair tuft; labium dark brown, nearly black, dark yellow-brown distally, broader than long; sternum elongate shield-shaped, dark red-brown; surface finely granulate, with short straight and feathery white setae. Legs with surface finely granulate, except for tarsi, which are finely wrinkled; covered in short, straight, slightly flattened white setae, white feathery setae sparse; femora I and II dark brown proximally, orange in distal third; femora III and IV uniform dark brown; patellae I and II orange with black lateral mottling; patellae III and IV uniform dark brown; tibiae I and II orange with black mottling and faint prolateral and retrolateral stripes; tibiae III and IV uniform dark brown; metatarsi I and II orange-brown with black mottling; metatarsi III and IV dark brown; tarsi I–IV dark orange-brown with black mottling, orange towards tip. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1 do 3, II pl 1 do 3, III pl 2 do 3 rl 1, IV pl 2 do 3 rl 1; patellae I–IV with long erect fine proximal and distal do setae; tibiae: I plv 1 rlv 1, II spineless, III pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 1 rlv 1, II plv 1 rlv 1, III pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3, IV pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3. Palpal spination: femora: pl 1 do 2; patellae: pl 1 do 1; tibiae: pl 1 do 1 plv 1; tarsi: pl 1 plv 2. Abdomen elongate, broadened posteriorly, with slight median constriction and long pedicel; dorsal scutum black, covering entire dorsum, fused to pedicel anteriorly and epigastric plate and post-epigastric sclerites ventrally; two pairs of distinct sigilla present within constriction; dorsum with four transverse black bands, at anterior, one-third, two-thirds and three-quarters abdomen length, second band with curved lateral extensions; dorsum densely covered in short, straight, slightly flattened setae and scattered feathery setae, black on markings and white between them, denser along sides, in constriction and posteriorly; venter mottled grey, covered in short straight white setae; venter with dark red-brown elongate rectangular ventral sclerite, anterior margin slightly notched; inframamillary sclerite small, orange-brown. Male palpal segments dark orange-brown with black mottling; tegulum pear-shaped, dark orange, with black insemination ducts; embolus with broad base and single coil, basal section strongly curved, nearly transverse; distal section of embolus long and curved; longitudinal length of embolus more than half tegulum length ( Figures 9D View Figure 9 , 14A, B View Figure 14 ).

Female (paratype, Tembe, NCA 2002 / 370). Measurements: CL 5.18, CW 2.38, AL 5.35, AW 2.74, TL 11.00 (9.05–11.00), FL 0.37, SL 2.12, SW 1.23, AME–AME 0.14, AME–ALE 0.07, ALE–ALE 0.53, PME–PME 0.32, PME–PLE 0.35, PLE–PLE 1.17, PERW 1.34, MOQAW 0.38, MOQPW 0.52, MOQL 0.51.

Length of leg segments: I 2.85 + 0.89 + 2.57 + 2.25 + 1.50 = 10.06; II 2.70 + 0.89 + 2.28 + 2.05 + 1.45 = 9.37; III 2.30 + 0.95 + 2.00 + 2.08 + 1.20 = 8.53; IV 3.70 + 1.20 + 3.20 + 3.60 + 1.45 = 13.15.

General appearance in Figures 1D View Figure 1 , 2H View Figure 2 , lateral view in Figure 3G View Figure 3 . Morphology as for male except the following: AER procurved, medians larger than laterals; AME separated by distance equal to one and one-sixth their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to half AME diameter; clypeus height equal to two and fourfifths times AME diameter; PER strongly recurved, laterals very slightly larger than medians; PME separated by distance slightly less than three times their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance slightly more than three times PME diameter; CW: PERW = 1.78: 1. Legs with surface finely granulate, except for tarsi, which are finely wrinkled; covered in short, straight, slightly flattened white setae, with dense white feathery setae on femora, patellae and tibiae, sparse on metatarsi; femora I and II yellow, dark brown in proximal quarter, with prolateral, dorsal and ventral black stripes; femora III and IV uniform dark brown with black mottling; patellae I and II yellow and III and IV dark brown, all with prolateral, dorsal and retrolateral black stripes; tibiae I and II yellow, with dorsal and retrolateral ventral black stripes; tibiae III and IV dark brown, with prolateral ventral, dorsal and retrolateral ventral black stripes; metatarsi I and II yellow with black mottling; metatarsi III and IV dark brown with black mottling; tarsi I and II yellow with black mottling; tarsi III yellow-brown; tarsi IV yellow-brown with black mottling, except distally. Leg spination: femora: I pl 1 do 3, II do 3, III pl 1 do 3, IV pl 1 do 3 rl 1; patellae I–IV with long erect fine proximal and distal do setae; tibiae: I plv 2 rlv 1, II plv 1 rlv 1, III pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 1 vt 2; metatarsi: I plv 1 rlv 2, II plv 2 rlv 2, III pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3, IV pl 3 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 3. Palpal spination: femora: do 2; patellae: pl 1 do 1; tibiae: pl 1 do 1 plv 1; tarsi: pl 1 rl 1 plv 1 rlv 1. Abdomen elongate, broadened posteriorly, with distinct median constriction and long pedicel, setae as for male; dorsal scutum narrow, black, extending slightly beyond one-third abdomen length; dorsum dark mottled grey behind scutum; two pairs of distinct sigilla within constriction, anterior pair on posterior margin of dorsal scutum; dorsum with three transverse black bands, fine bands at anterior and one-quarter abdomen length, broad band at two-thirds abdomen length, second band with curved lateral extensions; venter mottled grey, with pair of black spots behind post-epigastric sclerites and broad ventral band in front of spinnerets; two paired rows of tiny sclerites from epigastric furrow to spinnerets; epigastric region strongly sclerotized, post-epigastric sclerites weakly sclerotized; ventral sclerite absent; inframamillary sclerite distinct, red-brown; venter covered in white feathery setae, with black feathery setae on markings. Epigyne with oblique lateral ridges in posterior half of epigyne ( Figure 14C View Figure 14 ); copulatory ducts very long and winding, initially broad and lateral, directed anteriorly, bending anteriorly and medially before looping and entering elongate anterior ST II, broadly connected to elongate ST I ( Figure 14D, E View Figure 14 ).

Type material

Holotype ♂: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal Province: Tembe Elephant Park, Muzi Swamps , 27 ◦ 00’ S, 32 ◦ 30’ E, leg. C. Haddad, V. Swart, J. van As and J. Venter, 3–23 January 2002 (pitfalls) ( NCA 2002 / 369). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: MOZAMBIQUE: Bartholomew Diaz Point , BD Lodge, 21 ◦ 15.585’ S, 35 ◦ 06.851’ E, 5 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, R. Lyle and R. Fourie, 10 December 2007 (leaf litter, mangroves), 6imm. 1♀ ( NCA 2008 / 192); Inhaca, 26 ◦ 01’ S, 32 ◦ 54’ E, leg. T. Steyn, 30 April to 14 May 1994 (pitfalls, wetland), 1♀ ( MRAC 224295 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal Province: Tembe Elephant Park, Sparse woodland, 26 ◦ 57’ S, 32 ◦ 33’ E, leg. C. Haddad, 1 June 2002 (sweeps, grass), 1♀ ( NCA 2002 / 370) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined

None.

Distribution

Only known from the coastal plain of southern and central Mozambique and the northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa ( Figure 16 View Figure 16 ).

Biology

This ground-living species was collected from coastal woodlands, wetlands and swamps at altitudes lower than 50 m a.s.l. with a well-developed grass layer. This species is most likely a mimic of medium-sized ponerine ants such as Streblognatha and Pachycondyla   , but further study is needed to assess whether a single species serves as its model.