Baconia Lewis, 1885: 462

Caterino, Michael S. & Tishechkin, Alexey K., 2013, A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini), ZooKeys 343, pp. 1-297: 5-12

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.343.5744

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scientific name

Baconia Lewis, 1885: 462
status

 

Baconia Lewis, 1885: 462  

Type species:

Baconia loricata   Lewis, 1885: 463, designated by Bickhardt 1917: 163.

Binhister   Cooman, 1934: 122 (type species Binhister barbarus   Cooman, by original designation); previously recognized as a subgenus, it is here fully synonymized; comb. n.

Description.

Size range: Length 1.0-5.0mm; width 0.6-4.0mm; Body: ovoid to elongate, sides broadly rounded to sub- or fully parallel, convex to very strongly flattened; color rufescent to frequently piceous or metallic; glabrous or rarely finely setose. Head: frons convex, flat, or deeply depressed, frontal stria usually present along inner margin of eyes, variably interrupted or obsolete across front, frons and epistoma frequently separated by weak to strong transverse carina; supraorbital stria present or absent; epistoma depressed to flat or convex, frequently swollen along apical margin, apical margin usually straight; labrum usually much wider than long, up to 4 × or more, usually emarginate apically, but may be straight, bisinuate, or weakly produced; antennal scape usually short, stout, only weakly expanded to apex (Fig. 1A), may be longer, and/or expanded apically; antennal club generally completely tomentose, though rarely glabrous basally, annuli absent, but with 4 characteristic sensory slits on upper and lower surfaces (Fig. 1B), rarely with additional subapical sensorial patch (Fig. 54E); submentum angulate at base, truncate to projecting along distal margin, with few simple setae; gular sutures finely impressed, extending anterolaterad, uninterrupted to basal corner of buccal cavity; mentum subquadrate, sides weakly convergent, apical margin truncate to weakly emarginate, bearing few simple setae; labium with palpifers prominent, palpi with three palpomeres, the basalmost very short, the distal two with short, scattered setae; maxilla with cardo short, transverse, glabrous, stipes triangular, bearing few simple setae, palpi with four palpomeres, the basalmost very short; mandibles (Figs 1A, 3A, 28C) generally each with basal tooth, may be blunt or strong and acute, mandible frequently furrowed along lower, outer edge, may have ventral (mesal) pore and associated (presumed) secretory channel (Fig. 1C). Pronotum: sides parallel to convergent apically; marginal stria usually present and continuous around lateral and anterior margins; lateral submarginal stria present or absent; anterior corners nearly always weakly depressed (Fig. 1D); prescutellar impression absent; disk with single pair of anterior marginal gland openings, usually located close to anterior margin, behind eye on each side, discal punctation highly varied. Elytra: with 2-3 epipleural striae, outer subhumeral stria rarely present, inner subhumeral stria frequently present, often restricted to short basal fragment, dorsal striae 1-5 and sutural stria highly varied, variously abbreviated from base or apex or entirely absent; elytral disk nearly always with distinct secondary punctures in apical half or less (Fig. 1E). Prosternum: prosternal keel varied in width, often quite broad in depressed species, basal margin varied from emarginate to truncate, rarely outwardly arcuate; carinal striae generally present, usually complete, free, rarely abbreviated anteriorly, united or obsolete; prosternal lobe short to moderate in length, apical margin subtruncate to broadly arcuate, rarely bisinuate; marginal stria of prosternal lobe usually distinct across middle, variably obsolete at sides. Mesoventrite: anterior mesoventral margin ranging from distinctly emarginate to distinctly projecting, marginal stria complete to absent, rarely with secondary submarginal stria; mesometaventral stria usually present, most frequently arched forward onto mesoventrite, may in some cases partially displace or completely replace marginal mesoventral stria. Metaventrite: Anterior margin, i.e., mesometaventral suture, frequently arched forward (mirrored in most, but not all cases, in mesometaventral stria), inner lateral metaventral stria generally present, extending from near inner corner of mesocoxa toward metacoxa, or toward posterior corner of metepisternum in the most depressed species, variably sinuate or ab breviated apically; outer lateral metaventral stria present or absent; metaventral disk usually coarsely punctate at sides, impunctate at middle. Abdomen: 1st abdominal ventrite with one or two lateral striae along inner edge of metacoxa, disk usually impunctate at middle, but with conspicuous median punctures in various species; abdominal ventrites 2-5 usually punctate at sides, rarely with dense punctures extending across middle of disk (Fig. 43F). Propygidium often with basal transverse stria (Fig. 5E), disk variably punctate sexually dimorphic in one species; single pair of propygidial gland openings usually conspicuous (Fig. 1F), situated on each side variably near basal margin; pygidium never with apical marginal stria, usually densely punctate, very rarely sexually dimorphic, with male’s setose or otherwise modified; both sexes bearing pygidial trichomes in one species.Legs: Protibia usually rather narrow, with 0-5 unevenly spaced marginal teeth (Fig. 2A), the outer margin nearly always finely serrulate along entire length (Fig. 2A); protibial spurs present, usually short, weakly curved; mesotibia usually with 1-2 weak marginal spines (Fig. 2B), rarely lacking spines; metatibia rarely with any marginal spines (Fig. 2C), generally smooth, with outer apical corner slightly prolonged; tarsi not obviously dimorphic, tarsomeres 1-4 short, usually bearing only single pair of apical setae, tarsomere 5 about as long as 2-4 together, usually weakly dorsoventrally curved (Fig. 2D); tarsal claws simple, separate. Male genitalia:Accessory sclerites absent. T8 generally short, broad, with basal rim strongly sclerotized, basolateral edge extending beneath to inner corner of ventrolateral apodeme; ventrolateral apodeme usually acute, with distal portion strongly reduced, T8 usually broadly open beneath; basal emargination very shallow to moderately deep; basal membrane attachment line rarely evident, usually intersecting basal emargination; distal margin weakly sclerotized, poorly defined, usually vaguely emarginate. S8 articulated at basal corners with ventrolateral apodemes of T8, apical guides weakly developed, halves separate or fused; if separate, halves usually strongly divergent from base, with apices narrow, often rounded, bare to conspicuously setose; if halves of S8 fused, apical margin usually weakly emarginate, frequently with apicoventral velar membrane, bare to conspicuously setose. T9 usually divided, rarely united, with basal apodemes long and slender to short and broad; ventrolateral apodemes weak to strong, opposing or recurved basad, very rarely fused beneath; distal apices usually weakly opposed, subacute to truncate; subapical seta often present on sides. T10 entire, weakly sclerotized, apical margin rounded to weakly emarginate. S9 usually desclerotized along midline, rarely entirely divided; stem very narrow to moderately broad, frequently with ventral keel along much of length; stem rarely absent, with entire T9 short, subcordate; head of S9 usually broad, acute apicolaterally, with apical margin shallowly emarginate to sinuate; tegmen relatively simple, shallowly incised apically, parallel-sided to tapered apically, lacking medioventral tooth or process; median lobe narrow, simple, in a few species associated with small, articulated apical denticulate plates (Fig. 41O); basal piece usually short, with superficial membrane attachment line and oval, asymmetrical basal foramen. Female genitalia: T8 forming a single plate, apical margin usually emarginate; S8 entire or with median plate isolated, with basal baculi detached, articulated with sternites, basally subparallel; S9 usually present, elongate; median coxite articula tion present; valviferae paddle-shaped; coxites varied in shape, subquadrate to elongate, with 2-5 apical marginal teeth, with distinct, articulated apical stylus; bursa copulatrix usually completely membraneous, rarely with small sclerotizations of bursal wall; generally with single, bulbous, weakly sclerotized spermatheca, inserted near or at apex of bursa copulatrix; single, basically thin and elongate spermathecal gland present, generally attached near midpoint of spermatheca.

Diagnosis.

Although initially characterized on the basis of extreme flattening of the body, the species of Baconia   in fact span a broad range from convex to very flat. They are frequently metallic in appearance, although many species exibit no hint of metallic coloration. They are best recognized by their unique antennal club sensoria - in all species the annuli are reduced to a set of 4 distinct sensory slits on both upper and lower surfaces (Figs 1B, 54E, 64C). These are found in no other Histeridae   . Additional characters that can help to diagnose the genus if the antennal club is not visible: antennal scape usually short (Fig. 1A), no more than twice as long as wide, its apex obliquely truncate; frontal stria rarely complete; inner margins of eyes often strongly convergent dorsally (Fig. 1A); both mandibles usually with distinct basal tooth (Fig. 1A); anterior corners of pronotum concave to depressed (Fig. 1D); antescutellar fovea absent; lateral pronotal stria, when present, close to margin and often carinate; elytral disk with secondary punctures near apex (or, if generally punctate, punctures becoming larger and denser toward apex; Fig. 58A); prosternal striae usu ally present, rarely meeting anteriorly; protibia usually finely serrulate between major marginal spines; metatibia (and often mesotibia) with few or no marginal spines, and frequently prolonged at outer apex (Fig. 2C); and apical tarsomere long and somewhat curved dorsoventrally (Fig. 2D). In the Neotropical region, the depressed anterior pronotal corners, minimially spinose posterior tibiae, and presence of apical elytral secondary punctures will distinguish them from all other histerids in the region. Hypobletus   spp. may show comparable flatness to some Baconia   , but are always rufescent in color and parallel-sided in body form. The most flattened Baconia   spp. are nearly all metallic and/or rounded at the sides. In the Oriental region, where all the Baconia   spp. are moderately to strongly depressed in body shape, there may be some Platysomatini   that are generally similar in body form, but these will always exhibit S-shaped protarsal grooves and complete antennal annuli.

Checklist of the species of Baconia  

We establish here a series of informal species groups. These generally correspond to groups that we feel reflect monophyletic groups within the genus (and are supported as such in preliminary analyses). However, as much as anything they are intended to facilitate identification and description, uniting species that are similar and appear related. Ordering of species within species groups is also intended to reflect phylogeny to a certain degree, facilitating comparisons among closely related species and their diagnoses.

Baconia loricata   group

Baconia loricata   Lewis, 1885

Baconia patula   Lewis, 1885

Baconia gounellei   (Marseul, 1887a)

Baconia jubaris   (Lewis, 1901)

Baconia festiva   (Lewis, 1891)

Baconia foliosoma   sp. n.

Baconia sapphirina   sp. n.

Baconia furtiva   sp. n.

Baconia pernix   sp. n.

Baconia applanatis   sp. n.

Baconia disciformis   sp. n.

Baconia nebulosa   sp. n.

Baconia brunnea   sp. n.

Baconia godmani   group

Baconia godmani   (Lewis, 1888)

Baconia venusta   (J. E. LeConte, 1845)

Baconia riehli   (Marseul, 1862), comb. n.

Baconia scintillans   sp. n.

Baconia isthmia   sp. n.

Baconia rossi   sp. n.

Baconia navarretei   sp. n.

Baconia maculata   sp. n.

Baconia deliberata   sp. n.

Baconia excelsa   sp. n.

Baconia violacea   (Marseul, 1853)

Baconia varicolor   (Marseul, 1887b)

Baconia dives   (Marseul, 1862)

Baconia eximia   (Lewis, 1888)

Baconia splendida   sp. n.

Baconia jacinta   sp. n.

Baconia prasina   sp. n.

Baconia opulenta   sp. n.

Baconia illustris   (Lewis, 1900)

Baconia choaspites   (Lewis, 1901)

Baconia lewisi   Mazur, 1984

Baconia salobrus   group

Baconia salobrus   (Marseul, 1887b)

Baconia turgifrons   sp. n.

Baconia crassa   sp. n.

Baconia anthracina   sp. n.

Baconia emarginata   sp. n.

Baconia obsoleta   sp. n.

Baconia ruficauda   group

Baconia ruficauda   sp. n.

Baconia repens   sp. n.

Baconia angusta   group

Baconia angusta   Schmidt, 1893a

Baconia incognita   sp. n.

Baconia guartela   sp. n.

Baconia bullifrons   sp. n.

Baconia cavei   sp. n.

Baconia subtilis   sp. n.

Baconia dentipes   sp. n.

Baconia rubripennis   sp. n.

Baconia lunatifrons   sp. n.

Baconia aeneomicans   group

Baconia aeneomicans   (Horn, 1873)

Baconia pulchella   sp. n.

Baconia quercea   sp. n.

Baconia stephani   sp. n.

Baconia irinae   sp. n.

Baconia fornix   sp. n.

Baconia slipinskii   Mazur, 1981

Baconia submetallica   sp. n.

Baconia diminua   sp. n.

Baconia rufescens   sp. n.

Baconia punctiventer   sp. n.

Baconia aulaea   sp. n.

Baconia mustax   sp. n.

Baconia plebeia   sp. n.

Baconia castanea   sp. n.

Baconia lescheni   sp. n.

Baconia oblonga   sp. n.

Baconia animata   sp. n.

Baconia teredina   sp. n.

Baconia chujoi   (Cooman, 1941)

Baconia barbarus   (Cooman, 1934)

Baconia reposita   sp. n.

Baconia kubani   sp. n.

Baconia wallacea   sp. n.

Baconia bigemina   sp. n.

Baconia adebratti   sp. n.

Baconia silvestris   sp. n.

Baconia cylindrica   group

Baconia cylindrica   sp. n.

Baconia chatzimanolisi   sp. n.

Baconia gibbifer   group

Baconia gibbifer   sp. n.

Baconia piluliformis   sp. n.

Baconia maquipucunae   sp. n.

Baconia tenuipes   sp. n.

Baconia tuberculifer   sp. n.

Baconia globosa   sp. n.

Baconia insolita   group

Baconia insolita   (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n.

Baconia burmeisteri   (Marseul, 1870)

Baconia tricolor   sp. n.

Baconia pilicauda   sp. n.

Baconia riouka   group

Baconia riouka   (Marseul, 1861)

Baconia azuripennis   sp. n.

Baconia famelica   group

Baconia famelica   sp. n.

Baconia grossii   sp. n.

Baconia redemptor   sp. n.

Baconia fortis   sp. n.

Baconia longipes   sp. n.

Baconia katieae   sp. n.

Baconia cavifrons   (Lewis, 1893), comb. n.

Baconia haeterioides   sp. n.

Baconia micans   group

Baconia micans   (Schmidt, 1889a)

Baconia carinifrons   sp. n.

Baconia fulgida   (Schmidt, 1889c)

Baconia   incertae sedis

Baconia chilense   (Redtenbacher, 1867)

Baconia glauca   (Marseul, 1884)

Baconia coerulea   (Bickhardt, 1917)

Baconia angulifrons   sp. n.

Baconia sanguinea   sp. n.

Baconia viridimicans   (Schmidt, 1893b)

Baconia nayarita   sp. n.

Baconia viridis   sp. n.

Baconia purpurata   sp. n.

Baconia aenea   sp. n.

Baconia clemens   sp. n.

Baconia leivasi   sp. n.

Baconia atricolor   sp. n.

Key to species of Baconia