Cryptostigma longinoi Kondo

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 34-37

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Cryptostigma longinoi Kondo

sp. nov.

Cryptostigma longinoi Kondo   , sp. nov.

( Figs 1G & 13)

Material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. COSTA RICA: 1 (1), Provincia Puntarenas, Ojo de Agua, 800m asl, 10°16’N, 84°50’W, 5.vii.1991, coll. J. Longino #2956, ex nest of Azteca longiceps   in Triplaris melaenodendron, (USNM)   . Paratypes. Same data as holotype: 7 (7: 2 adult ♀♀ + 4 third-instar nymphs + 1 first-instar nymph) ( USNM); Puntarenas, rainforest 19 km S. Ciudad Neily, 20 m asl, 8°29’N, 82°58’W, 26.iii.1990, coll. P. S. Ward, # 10650, ex live branch with Azteca   2 (2 third-instar nymphs), ( USNM); Puntarenas, Reserva Biológica Carara, 9°47’S, 84°35’W, 400m asl, 15.ix.1988, coll. J. Longino (# 2196), ex Cecropia insignis   with Azteca xanthochroa   2 (2) ( USNM, BME); Provincia Guanacaste, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, -. i.2001, coll. V. Carmona, A. Carmona and T. Valdieso, ex Cecropia peltata   , in hollow stems, tended by Azteca sp. 2   (2) ( AUCC).

Other material studied. SURINAM: Paramaribo, 9.viii.1932, coll. G. Bunzli, No, -.VIII.26, within Cecropia   , attended by ant, 3 (4: 1 adult female + 1 third-instar nymph + 2 first-instar nymphs) ( BMNH)   .

Adult female ( Figs 1G & 13)

Unmounted material. Alcohol-preserved specimens ( Fig. 1G) subcircular; young adult female yellow cream, dorsum speckled with tiny dark spots corresponding to sclerotized pores on slide-mounted specimens; anal plates and surrounding area dark; stigmatic clefts also dark, with a white soft wax. Color of matured adult female yellow cream mixed with reddish brown, interrupted by transverse dark rows. Body becoming sclerotized around margins.

Mounted material. Body outline oval to broadly oval, margins smooth or irregular, undulated, 2.5–5.4 mm long, 2.3–4.2 mm wide (n=5).

Dorsum. Derm membranous, with numerous circular or irregularly-shaped sclerotic pores, each pore 13– 43 µm wide, of 2 types: i) sclerotic pores with a wide central locule (most pores on Fig. 12) present around anal plates and mid-dorsal area, and ii) sclerotic pores with a small central locule present throughout dorsum; with an area with few or no pores around anal plates. Dorsal setae knobbed or bluntly spinose, but with some sharply spinose, each seta 10–15 µm long, with well-developed base, most on a small sclerotic plate, 3–15 µm wide; base of each seta usually about 1/3 length of seta; present evenly on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. Dorsal microducts each 2–3 µm wide, numerous, with a very long outer ductule; inner ductule about as long as or longer than outer ductule; scattered on dorsum. Sclerotic area present around anal plates; derm sunken around anal plates and usually devoid of sclerotic pores; older specimens with a C-shaped (inverted C-shape on left side) sclerotization at base of each anal plate, which in very old specimens, becomes fused to sclerotized area around anal plates (see enlargement on right side of Figure 12). Anal plates together quadrate to pyriform, with rounded angles; each plate 200–253 µm long, 80–105 µm wide, anterolateral margin 138– 198 µm wide, posterolateral margin 112–138 µm wide; with 3–6 setae on dorsal surface of each plate; plates located about 1/3–1/4 of body length from posterior margin. Anal lobes closely adpressed along entire length, and often becoming entirely fused and leaving no signs of an anal cleft. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Marginal setae not differentiated. Stigmatic sclerotization rather small; stigmatic setae not detected.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, each 13–38 µm long, longest around vulvar region and on abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 2 or 3 pairs. Ventral microducts each about 2.0–2.5 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 325–420 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 5–8 µm wide, with 3–8 (mostly 5–7) loculi, abundant around vulva and present on all abdominal segments plus metathoracic segment; some specimens also with 1 or a few pores laterad to mouthparts. Simple pores present, each 4.5–7.5 µm wide, located on thorax, especially on pro- and metathoracic segments, often with a few also around meso- and metathoracic legs, and 1 or 2 elsewhere on thoracic region; rarely only 1 present on entire venter, near mouthparts (see Remarks). Spiracular disc-pores each 5–6 µm wide, each with 3–8 (mostly 5 & 6) loculi; with a line of pores extending anteriorly towards mesothoracic legs. Antennae small, with 1–3 fused segments, total length 33–50 µm. Legs greatly reduced, represented by a rudimentary claw, several setae, and associated pores, total length 13–25 µm. Spiracles much larger than legs, located near body margin just below stigmatic sclerotization; anterior spiracular peritremes each 105–170 µm wide, posterior peritremes each 125–170 µm wide.

Diagnosis. The adult female of C. longinoi   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous sclerotic pores, (ii) dorsal setae present, knobbed or bluntly spinose, some sharply spinose, (iii) preopercular pores absent, (iv) each anal plate with 3–6 setae on dorsal surface, (v) ventral tubular ducts absent, and (viii) simple pores present on venter. This is the only known species with simple pores on the venter.

First-instar nymph (Not illustrated).

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Elongate oval, 1.2 mm long, 0.8 mm wide (n=1).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae slender, each 5–13 µm long, present in 2 submedian parallel rows. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, with orifice appearing bilocular, apparently present submarginally around body and in 2 submedian longitudinal rows. Simple pores each 2.5–3.5 µm wide, distribution similar to dorsal microducts. Anal plates with shingled surface texture, together pyriform, each plate 98 µm long, 45 µm wide, anterolateral margin 78 µm long, posterolateral margin 55 µm long, dorsal surface with 1 seta on anterior part of plate plus about 4 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 20–28 µm long, total number 75, with about 10 anteriorly between eyes, and on each side, about 8 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 8 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 13–15 between posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae sharply spinose, some with rounded tips, all subequal in length or median seta longest, each seta 13–20 µm long; with 3 per stigmatic cleft.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous, with microtrichia present on mid-areas of abdominal segments. Antennae 5 segmented, total length 290 µm. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Ventral submedian setae: 1 pair on 3 last abdominal segments. Ventral submarginal setae slender, outer submarginal setae 7 pairs, inner submarginal setae 6 pairs; also 2 setae between each anterior and posterior spiracles, and 1 pair near apex of head. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, present in a single row around body margin. Spiracular discpores each 4 µm wide, with 4–7 (mostly 5) loculi; with with 6–8 pores in each anterior stigmatic furrow and 9–10 pores in each posterior furrow. Spiracular peritremes each 17.5 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 158 µm wide. Legs well developed; trochanter + femur 148–155 µm long, tibia + tarsus 170–175 µm long; femur with 6–8 setae. Prothoracic tarsal digitules dissimilar, 1 knobbed and 1 slender. Meso- and metathoracic tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed, 1 slightly thicker than the other.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. longinoi   can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows, (ii) with 3 stigmatic setae in each stigmatic cleft, (iii) with 8 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) 1 pair of ventral submedian setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) anterior stigmatic furrows each with 6–8 pores, posterior stigmatic furrows each with 9–10 pores, and (vi) femur with 6–8 setae. The preceding description of the first-instar nymph is based on a fully matured first-instar nymph from Costa Rica, close to molting and in poor condition.

Variation. All adult specimens from Costa Rica have easily discernible thick-rimmed ventral disc pores, but the only specimen available from Surinam has only one simple pore near the mouthparts; and the two first-instar nymphs from Surinam are in poor condition but have only 4 or 5 setae in each femur in contrast to 6–8 setae observed in the type material. Despite the differences observed in the Surinam material, the specimens appear to share sufficient features with the specimens from Costa Rica and are considered here to be conspecific   .

Host plants. Cecropiaceae   : Cecropia insignis   , Cecropia peltata   ; Polygonaceae   : Triplaris melaenodendron   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Formicidae   : Dolichoderinae: Azteca longiceps   , Azteca xanthochroa   , Azteca sp.  

Males. Unknown.

Etymology. The species is name after Dr. John T. Longino who collected the holotype. Dr. Longino is a world authority on neotropical myrmecology.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Costa Rica, Surinam.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History