Cryptostigma tuberculosum Kondo
Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 62-66
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|Cryptostigma tuberculosum Kondo|
Cryptostigma tuberculosum Kondo , sp. nov.
( Fig. 26)
Material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. VENEZUELA: Petare , Edo. Miranda, 28.viii.1939, coll. C.H. Ballou, No. 2027, ex Orange, 1 (2: holotype clearly indicated on label; smallest of two, dimensions: 2.5 mm wide, 3 mm long) ( USNM) . Paratypes. Same data as holotype, 2 (6: 2 adult ♀ + 4 embryonic larvae) ( USNM) .
Adult female ( Fig. 26)
Unmounted material. Not available during present study.
Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, 3.0– 3.8 mm long, 2.5–3.8 mm wide (n=3).
Dorsum. Derm membranous, with numerous circular sclerotized pores scattered evenly on dorsum; each pore 11–32 µm wide. Dorsal body setae sharply or bluntly spinose, each 6–12 µm long, present evenly on dorsum. Preopercular pores each about 9–13 µm wide, tubercle-like, present on mid-venter anterior and laterad to anal plates. Dorsal microducts bilocular, each about 3 µm wide, with long inner and outer ductules; numerous, scattered on dorsum. Sclerotized crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, each plate 183–194 µm long, 81–86 µm wide, anterolateral margin 135–146 µm wide, posterolateral margin 97–108 µm wide; with 5 setae on dorsal surface; plates located about 1/4 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent. each 6–11 µm long,
Margin. Margin smooth. Marginal setae each 6–11 µm long and sharply spinose, in a single row, with about 10–15 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts very deep; stigmatic sclerotization well developed, extending from margin to area above spiracles; stigmatic not detected.
Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae each 10–17 µm long and slender, straight or slightly bent, those on abdominal segments usually longer. Ventral microducts scattered evenly on venter, each about 2 µm wide. Ventral tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 286 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 6–7 µm wide with 4–8 (mostly 7) loculi, abundant around vulvar area and present sparsely on all abdominal segments; pores also present around metathoracic legs. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–5 µm wide, mostly with 5 loculi, 4- locular pores rare; present in spiracular furrows and with a group extending from posterior spiracles inward to between each meso- and metathoracic legs. Antennae very small, 1 segmented, total length 81–97 µm long (including tip of fleshy setae); represented by a flattened segment bearing about 15 setae Interantennal setae about 2 pairs. Legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotic disc bearing a rudimentary claw and a few setae; total length 21–32 µm. Spiracles larger than legs, located near margin. Anterior spiracular peritremes each 90–121 µm wide, posterior peritremes each 107–136 µm wide.
Diagnosis. The adult female of C. tuberculosum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores present, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, (iii) preopercular pores present, tubercle-like, (iv) each anal plate with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, (v) marginal setae sharply spinose, with about 10–15 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vi) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round plate bearing numerous setae, and (vii) legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotic disc bearing a rudimentary claw and few setae. C. tuberculosum is the only known species in the genus with tubercle-like preopercular pores. Preopercular pores are also present in C. serratum and may also be present on C. mexicanum , but they are not tubercle-like in the latter.
Remarks. Adult females are somewhat similar to those of C. rhizophilum or C. silveirai with which they share the presence of circular sclerotic pores. However, those of C. tuberculosum can be easily separated from the latter two species by the presence of tubercle-like preopercular pores, an uncommon feature of the genus Cryptostigma and only shared with C. serratum . Cryptostigma tuberculosum can be separated from C. serratum by the presence of circular sclerotic pores which are absent in latter.
Embryonic larva ( Fig. 27).
Unmounted material. Not available during present study.
Mounted material. Elongate oval, 743–798 µm long, 496–550 µm wide. Illustration and measurements produced from embryonic crawlers (n=4).
Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae slender, each 11–12 µm long, present in 4 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows of about 6 setae; total number of setae on dorsum 16–24. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, appearing bilocular; numerous, present in about 8 longitudinal rows. Simple pores each 3–4 µm wide; numerous, present in about 10 longitudinal rows, with 1 or 2 pores present near each dorsal microduct. Anal plates together pyriform, each plate 98–104 µm long, 38–49 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta present anteriorly, plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis.
Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 16–22 µm long, total number of setae 74– 81, with 8–10 anteriorly between eyes, and on each side, 8–11 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 9–11 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 14–17 between posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae each 9–12 µm long and sharply spinose, all subequal in length; each cleft with 3 setae. Eyespots present on margin laterad to antennal scape.
Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 5 segmented, total length 259–280 µm. Mid-ventral setae slender, with 1 pair present on last 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Ventral setae flagellate, with 7 pairs of outer submarginal setae on each side between each posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft, 3 just posterior to each anterior stigmatic setae, and 1 pair on head region. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, with 4 between each antennal scape and anterior stigmatic setae, 2 just posterior to each anterior stigmatic area, and 6 between each posterior stigmatic area and anal cleft. Spiracular disc-pores each 3–4 µm wide with 4–7 (mostly 5) loculi, each anterior stigmatic furrow with 5–7 pores, each posterior furrow with 6– 8 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 17–20 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 151–153 µm wide. Legs well developed, trochanter + femur 119–129 µm long, tibia + tarsus 151–167 µm long; microctenidia present on apex of tibia. Prothoracic tarsal digitules dissimilar, 1 knobbed and 1 slender;meso- and metathoracic tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw with a small denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed.
Diagnosis. The embryonic nymphs of C. tuberculosum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 4 longitudinal rows of about 6 pairs, (ii) anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft each with 3 stigmatic setae, (iii) with about 9–11 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) a pair of submedian abdominal setae present on last 3 abdominal segments, and (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with 5–7 pores and each posterior furrows with 6–8 pores. The nymphs of C. tuberculosum can be separated from other known first-instar nymphs in the genus by the presence of 4 longitudinal rows of setae on the dorsum.
Remarks. Morphological features taken from the embryonic crawler should reflect those of first-instar nymphs, except for the body shape which may be elongate oval and not ovoid.
C. tuberculosum is only known from Venezuela.
Associated Hymenoptera . None reported.
Etymology. The specific epithet “ tuberculosum ” is named after the tubercle-like preopercular pores found on the dorsum in the adult female.
Distribution. Neotropical Region: Venezuela.
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