Cryptostigma rhizophilum Kondo
Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 49-54
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|Cryptostigma rhizophilum Kondo|
Cryptostigma rhizophilum Kondo , sp. nov.
( Figs 20 & 21)
Material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): Hawaii, 8.i.1957, coll. M. Bolosan, (Hon. 38496), ex Persisteria elata , 1 (2: holotype clearly indicated on label) ( USNM) . Paratypes. COLOMBIA: Salado , -. v.1943, coll. S.B. Losada, (Losada # 5-158), ex pineapple roots, 1 (1) ( USNM) . COSTA RICA: ( Quarantine at San Francisco, California), 29.iii.1939, coll. not given, ex Zingiber officinale , 1 (1) ( USNM) ; Intercepted at San Francisco, 29.iii.1939, coll. R.D. Clemens, (San Francisco 16254), ex abaca ( Musa textiles ), 2 (4), ( USNM) ; Bataan , 8.v.1952, coll. C.H. Batchelder, ex abaca, 2 (2) ( USNM) ; Bataan , 22.x.1952, coll. C.H. Batchelder, (#54), ex Abaca, 2 (6) ( USNM) ; Bataan , 3.x.1952, coll. C.H. Batchelder, (#55), ex abaca, 2 (7) ( USNM) ; Bataan , 26.vi.1952, coll. C.H. Batchelder, (#42), ex abaca, 2 (21: 3 adult ♀ + 18 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM) ; Bataan , 26.vi.1952, coll. C.H. Batchelder, (#41), ex Anthurium sp. , 2 (4), ( USNM) . ECUADOR: Quininde , 70 km NW Santo Domingo, date not given, coll. W.M. Allen, ex oil palm roots, 1 (2) ( BME) ; Quininde , 70 km NW of Santo Domingo, 5.ix.1975, coll. W.M. Allen, ex oil palm roots, 2 (16 first-instar nymphs) ( BME); (intercepted) at Miami (23804), 7.iv.1980, coll. R. Faircloth, ex African palm ( Elaeis guineensis ), 1 (1) ( USNM) ; Santo Domingo , Quininde Hwy., 28 km, Hacienda la Merced of Fidel Egas, 1.xii.1960, coll. G. Merino, ex Elaeis guineensis roots, 1 (5) ( USNM) ; Estación Experimental Santo Domingo , 6.vi.1983, coll. H. Vera, ex Elaeis guineensis roots, 3 (3) ( USNM) ; Estación Experimental Santo Domingo , 12.vi.1983, coll. H. Vera, ex Arecaceae roots, 1 (1) ( USNM) ; Pichilinque , 1.x.1944, coll. E.J. Hambleton, (#51), ex banana roots, 1 (1) ( USNM) ; Ecuador , Pichilinque, 1.x.1944, coll. E.J. Hambleton, (#55), ex orquid root, 1 (2), ( USNM) ; Pichilinque , 1.x.1944, coll. E.J. Hambleton (#62), ex cacao roots, 1 (2 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM) ; Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 3.x.1958, coll. G. Merino, Letter Oct. 17 (# X-L-31), ex Peristeria elata , 1 (4) ( USNM) ; place not given, 25.x.1995, coll. K. Ortega /M. Kaae, host not given, LB 004673 View Materials CA, 1 (1) ( USNM) ; Santo Domingo de los Colorados, -. vi.1975, coll. Desmier, No. 6245- (2–5, 7, 8), ex oil palm roots, 6 (11: 3 adult ♀ + 1 second-instar ♀ + 7 first-instar nymphs) ( MNHN) . PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): 24.vi.1977, coll. R. Lyle, (Miami 16370), ex pineapple roots, 2 (5) ( USNM) .
Adult female ( Fig. 20)
Unmounted material. Live specimens were not available.
Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, 1.9–4.3 mm long, 1.6–4.0 mm wide (n=58).
Dorsum. Derm membranous, with numerous circular sclerotic pores scattered evenly on dorsum; each pore 11–36 µm wide. Dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, occasionally with a swollen apex, each 8.5–13.0 µm long, present evenly on dorsum. Simple pores circular to subcircular, each about 3–4 µm wide, present in subcircular clusters of 16–50 pores just laterad to stigmatic cleft. Dorsal microducts bilocular, each about 3–4 µm wide; numerous, evenly distributed on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. clerotic crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, each plate 146–173 µm long, 76–86 µm wide, anterolateral margin 110–150 µm long, posterolateral margin 85–125 µm long; with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, plus about 1 ventral subapical setae on each plate; plates located about 1/5 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.
Margin. Margin smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 9–15 µm long, arranged in a single row, with about 14–30 setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts very deep; stigmatic sclerotization incorporating many spiracular disc-pores. Stigmatic setae (not illustrated) each 4–11 µm long and bluntly spinose or conical, with 3 per cleft, all subequal in length, but setae often broken off or absent.
Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, each 13–23 µm long, those on abdominal segments usually longest. Ventral microducts each about 3 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 243–291 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 5–7 µm wide with 5–10 (mostly 7) loculi, present on perivulvar region. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–6 µm wide with 3–7 (mostly 5) loculi, present from area of spiracles to body margin. Antennae very small, 1 segmented, represented by a flattened segment bearing several setae, length 17–21 µm. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotized disc, total length 21–32 µm, each leg bearing a claw, a pair of hair-like digitules and numerous setae. Claw without a denticle. Spiracles larger than legs, located near margin; each anterior peritremes 70–83 µm wide, each posterior peritremes 72–83 µm wide.
Diagnosis. The adult female of C. rhizophilum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores present, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, occasionally with a swollen apex, (iii) preopercular pores absent, (iv) each anal plate with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, (v) with about 14–29 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vi) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round plate bearing numerous setae, (vii) multilocular disc-pores restricted to perivulvar region, (viii) legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotized disc bearing a claw and numerous setae, and (ix) ventral tubular ducts absent. C. rhizophilum is the only known species in the genus with subcircular clusters of simple pores present laterad to each stigmatic cleft.
First-instar nymph ( Fig. 21)
Unmounted material. Not available for study.
Mounted material. Nymphs elongate oval, 706–792 µm long, 501–555 µm wide (n=36).
Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae each 7–16 µm long, totalling about 5 pairs, present in 2 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows, extending from head region towards area dorsad to between meso- and metathorax. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, appearing bilocular, present in about 8 longitudinal rows. Simple pores each 2–4 µm wide, present submedially and submarginally. Anal plates together quadrate, each plate 216–237 µm long, 108–124 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta present on mid-area of plate near inner margin, plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis. Eyespots present on margin just above level of antennal scape.
Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 15–23 µm long, totalling 75–80, with 10– 13 anteriorly between eyes and, on each side, 7–11 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 8–13 between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 14–16 between each posterior stigmatic setae and body apex. Stigmatic setae each 11–18 µm long and bluntly spinose; with 3 setae in each anterior stigmatic cleft and 3 or 4 in each posterior cleft.
Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 5 segmented, total length 216–248 µm. Mid-ventral setae slender, with a pair in posterior 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae of 2 types: inner submarginal setae slender, present in 1 or 2 rows; outermost submarginal setae sharply spinose, present in 1 row on abdomen between posterior stigmatic areas and body apex, with 4 sharply spinose setae between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, and 1 pair of slender setae on head region. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, with 4 on each side between each antennal scape and anterior stigmatic area, 4 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 5 or 6 between each posterior stigmatic area and anal cleft. Spiracular disc-pores each 3.5–4.0 µm wide with 3–8 (mostly 5) loculi; both anterior and posterior stigmatic furrows each with 5–8 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 12–15 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 145–160 µm wide. Legs well developed, trochanter with a very long setae, trochanter + femur 280–313 µm long, tibia + tarsus 345–367 µm long; microctenidia present on apex of tibia. Prothoracic tarsal digitules dissimilar, 1 knobbed and 1 spiniform, meso- and metathoracic tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed.
Variation. In the first-instar nymphs of C. rhizophilum , the submarginal setae between the posterior spiracle and anal cleft are present in either 2 or three parallel rows, the outermost row being composed of sharply spinose setae.
Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. rhizophilum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of 5 pairs, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 3 stigmatic setae; posterior stigmatic cleft with 3 or 4 setae, (iii) 8–13 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) with pairs of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior and posterior stigmatic furrow with 5–8 pores, and (vii) 1 microduct present mesad to each inner submarginal setae on abdomen. C. rhizophilum is the only species in the genus with first-instar nymphs that have sharply spinose outer submarginal setae.
Remarks. C. rhizophilum is unusual among species of Cryptostigma in its preference for the roots of its host. Two other species of Cryptostigma have been recorded from roots: C. urichi , a commonly ant-tended scale insect, normally found inside hollow branches and stems, has been collected on the large roots of Erythrina sp. in Surinam, although these were probably the exposed larger roots of the tree and not the underground roots; and C. silveirai appears to be restricted to the underground roots of grape vines and is known to be an important pest of vines in Brazil (see remarks under C. silveirai ). C. rhizophilum has the potential to become an agricultural pest since its hosts includes oil palm, banana, Manila hemp, orchids and pineapple.
Host plants. Araceae : Anthurium sp. Arecaceae : Elaeis guineensis . Bromeliaceae : pineapple ( Ananas sp. ). Musaceae : Musa sapientum , Musa textilis . Orchidaceae : Peristeria elata . Sterculiaceae : Theobroma sp. Zingiberaceae : Zingiber officinale .
Associated Hymenoptera . None reported.
Etymology. The specific epithet “ rhizophilum ” is composed of the Greek words “rhiza” meaning “root” and “philum” which is a neutral adjective meaning loving.
Males. Known from second-instar male nymphs.
Distribution. Neotropical Region: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama.
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