Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 11-15

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Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison


Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison  

( Figs 1E, 2, 3).

Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison, 1929: 48   .

Cryptostigma biorbiculatus Morrison   [misspelling], Williams 2001 (1999): 226.

Type material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): Ancon, 5.v.1923, coll. W.M. Wheeler (#110), ex Cordia alliodora   , holotype clearly indicated on slide 1(2) ( USNM)   . Paratypes. PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): Corozal , 12.vii.1924, coll. W.M. Wheeler, ex Cordia alliodora   , AL-098-84, 4 (4: 3 adult ♀ + 1 first-instar nymph) ( AUCC)   ; Corozal , 12.vii.1924, coll. W.M. Wheeler, ex Cordia alliodora   , AL- 140-77, 2(2) ( AUCC)   ; Corozal , 12.vii.1924, coll. W.M. Wheeler, ex Cordia sp.   , AL-190-1999, slide mounted from USNM dry material no. 666, 3(3) ( AUCC)   .

Other material examined. COLOMBIA: Valle, Cali, 5.i.2000, coll. T. Kondo, ex Croton gossypiifolius   , tended by Azteca sp.   , AL-099-2000, 8 (8) ( AUCC); Valle, Cali, 5.i.2000, coll. T. Kondo, ex Croton gossypiifolius   , tended by Azteca sp.   , AL-099-2000, 15 (15 first-instar nymphs) ( AUCC); COSTA RICA: Puntarenas, Parque Nacional Piedras Blancas (8°42’N, 83°12’W), 15.ii.2001, coll. M. Schmidt, ex Tetrathylacium macrophyllum   , tended by Azteca nigricans   , 7 (7: 4 adult ♀ + 1 second-instar nymph + 2 firstinstar nymphs) ( BME); PANAMA: Chiriqui Province, 1938, coll. Ferris, C. biorbiculus Morr.   , det T. Kondo, no. 118, 1 (1 first-instar nymph) ( BME).

Adult female ( Figs 1E, 2)

Unmounted material. Alcohol-preserved specimens creamy yellow to orange, old specimens becoming dark purplish red. Insects covered by a thin layer of flaky wax. Orbicular pores clearly visible as darker spots; area around anal plates and stigmatic clefts darker; with a white wet wax around spiracular openings of stigmatic cleft.

Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, 4–8 mm long, 3–6 mm wide (n=19).

Dorsum. Derm membranous, with numerous sclerotic pores of various geometric shapes (see Remarks), scattered evenly on dorsum; each pore 8–31 µm wide, with a central bilocular microduct, duct-rim of each microduct about 4 µm wide. Dorsal setae and preopercular pores absent. Simple pores each 3.5–6.0 µm wide, scattered evenly throughout dorsum. With 2 large subcircular orbicular pores, each 190–320 µm wide at widest point, 1 located dorsad to mouthparts, other on mid-thoracic region. Cribriform platelets each 4–17 µm wide, present singly or in groups of up to 40 platelets; with a group located on anterior margin of sclerotic area around anal plates, and 4–6 groups present submedially between anal plates and mid-dorsal orbicular pore. Anal plates together quadrate, each plate 156–189 mm long, 70–86 µm wide; anterolateral margin 125–145 µm long, posterolateral margin 125–135 µm long; with about 10 setae on dorsal surface; plates located about 1/5 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 8–10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Body margin membranous, smooth, rugose or often papillated. Marginal setae each 13–20 µm long, sharply spinose, arranged in a single row, with 25–50 setae between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts deep, stigmatic sclerotization well developed, covering spiracles. Stigmatic setae each 7.5–17.5 µm long and bluntly spinose, with 3–9 in each cleft but often broken off.

Venter. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, each 17–32 µm long, those on abdominal segments longer. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 253–286 µm wide. Pregenital disc-pores each 5.0–6.0 µm wide with 3–8 (mostly 7 & 8) loculi; present on all abdominal segments and in mid-ventral areas of meso- and metathorax, with a denser line of pores spreading from vulva to posterior spiracles. Spiracular disc-pores each 5.0–6.0 µm wide, with 5– 8 (mostly 7 & 8) loculi. Antennae reduced, 1- or 2-segmented, total length 30–68 µm long. With 3 or 4 pairs of interantennal setae. Legs greatly reduced, with all segments fused, total length 53–85 µm; tarsal digitules similar, knobbed, but knobbed tips often broken off; claw digitules similar, knobbed. Claw denticle present or absent. Each anterior spiracular peritreme 102–162 µm wide, each posterior peritreme 119–162 µm wide.

Diagnosis. The adult female of C. biorbiculus   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous sclerotic pores, (ii) a pair of orbicular pores present in midline, (iii) 3 or more pairs of small groups of cribriform platelets present submedially between anal plates and posterior orbicular pore, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) 9–15 setae present on dorsal surface of each anal plate, (vi) ventral tubular ducts absent, and (vii) multilocular disc-pores present near mouthparts.

Remarks. Specimens collected in Cali, Colombia, on Croton gossypiifolius   have sclerotic pores with smooth round edges, in contrast to more irregular to quadrate sclerotic pores as seen in the type specimens and species collected elsewhere.

First-instar nymph ( Fig. 3)

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Elongate oval, 0.7–1.6 mm long, 0.4–0.7 mm wide (n=16).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous, often reticulated, with segmentation delineated by membranous folds. Dorsal setae absent. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, numerous over dorsum. Simple pores each 3–4 µm wide, with center of pore either with a darker region or of normal type. Anal plates together oval, each plate 58–72 µm long, 21–26 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta on anterior part of plate plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis. Eyespots present just above level of antennal scape.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, total number 64–75, with 8–12 anteriorly between eyes, and on each side 6–8 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 6–8 between each group of anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 14–16 between posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae bluntly spinose, each seta 18–24 µm long; with 1 or 2 (mostly 1) stigmatic setae in each anterior cleft and 1–3 (mostly 2) in each posterior cleft.

Venter. Microspines present on all abdominal segments. Antennae 6 segmented, each 199–318 µm long. Mid-ventral setae slender, 1 pair present on last 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae in 7 pairs on each side between posterior stigmatic areas and anal cleft, 1 seta between each anterior and posterior spiracles, and 1 pair near apex of head. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, present submarginally from just posterior to eyes to posterior body apex. Spiracular disc-pores each 3.5–4.0 µm wide, with 3–9 (mostly 5 & 7) loculi; each anterior spiracular furrow with 8–11 pores; each posterior spiracular furrow with 11–14 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 15–16 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 79–164 µm wide. Legs well developed, with numerous setae; trochanter + femur 270–361 µm long, tibia + tarsus 345–426 µm long. Prothoracic tarsal digitules dissimilar, 1 knobbed and other spiniform; meso- and metathoracic tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw slender, with or without a denticle.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. biorbiculus   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal setae absent, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 1 or 2 stigmatic setae; each posterior cleft with 1–3 setae, (iii) 6–8 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 3 pairs of ventral submedian setae on abdomen, and (vi) each anterior spiracular furrow with 8–11 pores and each posterior furrow with 11–14 pores.

Remarks. First-instar nymphs from material collected in Colombia on Croton gossypiifolius   have many fewer setae on the legs, a greater number of ventral and dorsal microducts and a small apical claw denticle (denticle absent in type material).

Host plants. Boraginaceae   : Cordia alliodora   , Cordia sp.   ; Euphorbiaceae   : Croton gossypiifolius   ; Flacourtiaceae   : Tetrathylacium macrophyllum   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Dolichoderinae: Azteca longiceps   , A. nigricans   , Azteca sp.   ; Pseudomyrmecinae   : Pseudomyrmex sericea   (as Pseudomyrma sericeae   ) ( Morrison, 1929).

Males. Unknown.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison

Kondo, Takumasa 2010

Cryptostigma biorbiculus

Morrison, H. 1929: 48