Cryptostigma chacoensis Kondo
Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 15-19
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|Cryptostigma chacoensis Kondo|
Cryptostigma chacoensis Kondo , sp. nov.
( Figs 1B, C, 4 & 5)
Type material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, Charagua, 50 km N.E. La Brecha, -. xi.2002, coll. D.W. Roubik, ex Caesalpinia paraguariensis , 1 (1) ( USNM) . Paratypes. Same data as holotype,
7 (13: 4 adult ♀ +1 third-instar nymph + 8 embryonic nymphs) ( AUCC) ; 6 (9: 4 adult ♀ + 1 third-instar nymph + 4 embryonic nymphs) ( BME) ; 6 (9: 4 adult ♀ + 1 third-instar nymph + 4 embryonic nymphs) ( BMNH) ; 21 (38: 4 adult ♀ + 1 adult ♀ anal plate + 5 third-instar nymphs + 2 second-instar nymphs + 26 first-instar nymphs including embryonic nymphs) ( USNM) .
Adult female ( Figs 1B, C & 4)
Unmounted material. Insects found inside nests of Plebeia sp. and Schwarzula timida Camargo and Pedro (D.W. Roubik, pers. comm.). Young adult females reddish orange, becoming purplish brown at maturity; anal plates and surrounding area distinctly darker than rest of dorsum.
Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, constricted at stigmatic areas, 4.8–6.9 mm long, 4.5–6.1 mm wide (n=17).
Dorsum. Derm membranous, with 25–33 subcircular, compound orbicular pores present submarginally and submedially, absent from mid-dorsum; diameter of each pore 50–350 (mostly 100–200) µm wide, those closest to body margin usually smaller; present submarginally and submedially, absent from mid-dorsum; each orbicular pore often associated with very small simple pores, and often with a few bilocular microducts arranged near the sclerotized orbicular pore rim; each pore with 30–50 slender setae, each 15–28 µm long, around pore margins, either on sclerotic rim or on membrane near rim, rarely present on central area of pore. Dorsal setae absent, except for those on orbicular pores. Simple pores with a pore rim of variable thickness, each 5–7 µm wide. Dorsal microducts with a bilocular opening, of 2 types, duct-rim of small simple ducts each about 2 µm wide, duct-rim of larger ducts each 5 µm wide. Preopercular pores absent. Narrow sclerotic crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates heavily sclerotized, plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, each plate 235–260 µm long, 90–125 µm wide, anterolateral margin 135–180 µm long, posterolateral margin 155–180 µm long; setae not visible on most specimens, but with 18 setae on dorsal surface of 1 specimen; plates located about 1/5–1/4 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyespots absent.
Margin. Margins smooth. Marginal setae conical, basal portion of seta often swollen, with well-developed setal sockets, each seta 10–33 µm long, numerous, with 30–90 setae in 1 or 2 rows between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts deep, forming a sclerotic plate enclosing spiracles, each cleft with 3 bluntly spinose stigmatic setae, straight or curved, subequal in length, each 20–43 µm long, but often broken off.
Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, those on abdominal segments longer (each 20–65 µm long), shorter around body margin (13–35 µm long). Ventral microducts each 2–4 µm wide, each showing slight sclerotization around outer rim; evenly distributed on venter. Tubular ducts present around vulva and anteriorly on mid-areas of abdomen up to about abdominal segment IV. Clypeolabral shield 480–560 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 5–9 µm wide, with 6–8 (mostly 7 or 8, rarely with 4, 5 or 9) loculi, present around vulva and medially on all abdominal segments; also present transversely on thorax, with pores extending to mesothoracic legs and posterior spiracles. Spiracular disc-pores each 5–7 µm wide with 5–7 (mostly 6, rarely with 4 or 5) loculi. Antennae reduced, 1–4 segmented, total length 65–190 µm. Legs reduced, femora, tibiae and tarsi strongly fused, total length 65–200 µm long; tarsal digitules setose; claw digitules knobbed. Claw denticle absent. Spiracles located between margin and each prothoracic and mesothoracic legs; each anterior peritreme 190–215 µm wide, each posterior peritreme 190–240 µm wide.
Diagnosis. The adult female of C. chacoensis can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (i) dorsum with 25–33 complex orbicular pores, (ii) unilocular and bilocular dorsal microducts present, (iii) with about 18 setae on surface of each anal plate, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) marginal setae sharply spinose, often with swollen bases, and (vi) presence of ventral tubular ducts. C. chacoensis appears most similar to C. saundersi Laing , but the following features separate the two species (characters on C. saundersi in brackets): (1) only 22–23 complex orbicular pores present (60 or more); (2) multilocular pores absent near antennae (a multilocular pore present next to each antenna); and (3) ventral microducts arranged randomly (arranged in transverse rows).
Remarks. Cryptostigma chacoensis together with C. melissophilum are the only species of Coccidae known to be tended by stingless bees and harboured within their nests. Camargo and Pedro (2002a) reported in detail on the association between the stingless Schwarzula sp. bees and C. melissophilum (then Cryptostigma sp. ), and later described the bee as Schwarzula coccidophila ( Camargo & Pedro, 2002b) .
First-instar nymph ( Fig. 5)
Unmounted material. Immature insects yellowish.
Mounted material. Elongate oval, 1.0– 1.1 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm wide (n=41).
Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous, highly rugose, with segmentation delineated by membranous folds. Dorsal setae present in 2 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows, each seta 7–10 µm long. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts not detected. Simple pores about 3 µm wide, present in about 3 longitudinal rows, most pores in pairs. Anal plates triangular, each plate 80–83 µm long, 23–33 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta on margin of mid part of plate plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring with 6 setae and an irregular row of translucent wax pores. Eyespots present just above level of antennal scape.
Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 12–18 µm long; total number 76–93: with 10–15 anteriorly between eyes, and on each side, 7–10 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 8–10 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 16–20 between posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae bluntly spinose, each 17–33 µm long, with 1 or 2 per stigmatic cleft.
Venter. Ventral derm membranous; microspines present on mid-ventral and mid-thoracic areas (not illustrated). Antennae 6 segmented, total length 285–300 µm. Mid-ventral setae slender, with 1 pair present on last 5 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae present in 7 pairs on each side of abdomen (a pair in each segment), a single seta between each anterior and posterior spiracles, and 1 pair near apex of head. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, 1 present mesad to each antennal scape, 1 on midarea between antennal scape and anterior stigmatic setae, 1 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 6 next to first 6 pairs of submarginal setae on abdomen on each side, just mesad to each inner submarginal seta. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–5 µm wide with 3–8 (mostly 5 & 7) loculi; each anterior and posterior spiracular furrow with 6–9 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 12–15 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 100–110 µm wide. Legs well developed, with numerous setae; trochanter + femur each 170–180 µm long, tibia + tarsus each 250–260 µm long, microctenidia not visible on tibial apex. Tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw slender, without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed, 1 slightly thicker than other.
Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. chacoensis can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal derm rugose, (ii) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal submedian rows of about 11 pairs of setae, (iii) stigmatic setae totalling 1 or 2 per stigmatic cleft, (iv) 8–10 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (v) antennae 6 segmented, (vi) with 5 pairs of ventral submedian setae on abdomen, (vii) spiracular disc-pores with 3–8 loculi, and (vii) each anterior and posterior spiracular furrow with 6–9 pores.
Etymology. The species is named after the biodiversity hotspot, the Chaco region of Bolivia, where it was collected.
Distribution. Neotropical Region: Bolivia.
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