Cryptostigma Ferris

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 8-9

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Cryptostigma Ferris


Cryptostigma Ferris  

Cryptostigma Ferris 1922: 160   . Type species: Cryptostigma ingae Ferris   , by original designation and monotypy. [= Cryptostigma inquilina (Newstead)   ]

Generic description. Adult female. Insect body oval to elongate oval, convex, rarely cylindrical when found inside narrow hollow twigs, with a thin glassy wax cover or rarely a rather thicker wax cover. Not producing an ovisac.

Dorsum. Dorsal derm generally becoming heavily sclerotized at maturity. Dorsal setae present or absent, when present, spinose with a pointed, blunt, knobbed, rounded, or occasionally spatulate apex. Dorsal tubercles absent. Sclerotic pores present or absent. Preopercular pores present or absent. Dorsal microducts present, with either a single or bilocular opening, outer and inner ductules usually short. Simple pores usually present, of 1 or more sizes, absent in Cryptostigma reticulolaminae   . Orbicular pores present or absent; when present, each pore with a thin membrane and margins membranous or mildly to heavily sclerotized; sometimes with associated setae, simple pores and microducts. Cribriform plates absent, although cribriform platelets often present. Anal plates together quadrate, rarely pyriform, with rounded angles, 4–21 setae on dorsal surface, and 0–6 ventral subapical setae. Anal ring commonly with 10 setae, but with up to 20 setae in C. serratum   . Eyes absent.

Margin. Marginal setae spinose or conical, stout, with pointed apex, usually numerous, but absent in some species. Stigmatic clefts deep; spiracular sclerotizations closely associated with a spiracle; spiracular sclerotizations either short or long and extending far from margin, often enclosing spiracles. Stigmatic setae totalling 0–3 per stigmatic area, present on each stigmatic sclerotization, setae often broken-off; shape bluntly or sharply spinose, or conical, all subequal in length.

Venter. Spiracles large; width of peritreme usually greater than length of legs; spiracular opening generally facing dorsally or towards body margin. Antennae reduced, usually 1–4 segmented, mostly 1 segmented or represented by a flattened segment bearing numerous setae, rarely up to 8 fused segments in C. melissophilum   . Legs greatly reduced; segments usually indistinct or fused; in many species represented by clusters of setae usually associated with a tiny sclerotic plate. Spiracular disc-pores with 3–9 loculi. Mouthparts well developed; labium with 8 labial setae. Pregenital disc-pores with 3–11 loculi, mostly with 5– 8 loculi, about same size or larger than spiracular disc-pores. Distribution of pregenital disc-pores variable. Ventral setae, slender, pointed, usually abundant towards posterior end of body. Ventral tubular ducts usually absent, but present in C. saundersi   and C. chacoensis   .

First-instar nymph. Body elongate oval.

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous, smooth or reticulated, with segmentation delineated by membranous folds. Dorsal setae present or absent. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to each eye. Dorsal microducts present. Simple pores present. Anal plates together oval or quadrate, dorsal surface with 1 seta on anterior part of plate, often present on inner margin of plate, plus 3 apical setae; ventral side with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring typical of coccid first-instar nymphs, with 6 setae and an irregular row of translucent wax pores. Eyespots present or absent.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, straight or strongly bent. Stigmatic setae bluntly spinose, usually 1 or 2 per stigmatic cleft, but rarely up to 5.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 5 or 6 segmented, third antennal segment longest; if 5 segmented, fleshy setae present on last 2 segments only; if 6 segmented, fleshy setae present on last 3 segments. Interantennal setae usually 1 pair, rarely 3 pairs. Mid-ventral setae slender, usually present on last 3 abdominal segments, but may be present on all segments and mid-thoracic region. Submarginal setae present in 7 pairs on each side between posterior stigmatic areas and anal cleft; with 1 or numerous setae between anterior and posterior spiracles; with usually 1, rarely 2 pairs near apex of head; setae rarely present elsewhere. Ventral microducts present submarginally from just below eyes to body posterior apex, rarely present between pro- and metathoracic coxae and around mouthparts. Spiracular disc-pores with 3–9 loculi, with 5-locular pores most common. Muscle plate usually attached to upper edge of each peritreme or absent. Mouthparts well developed, with long coiled stylets (not illustrated in the figures); labium with 8 setae. Legs well developed, often with numerous setae; microctenidia present on apex of tibiae. Prothoracic tarsal digitules dissimilar, 1 knobbed and the other spiniform; meso- and metathoracic tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw slender, with or without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed, one digitule broader than other.

Diagnosis. Adult female. Without subcircular groups of simple disc pores present submarginally or submedially, although a subcircular group may occur laterad to each spiracular sclerotization. Anal plates together quadrate or subcircular. Pregenital disc pores present, either restricted to around vulva or extending onto anterior abdominal segments; if pregenital disc-pores restricted to small area around vulva, then stigmatic setae either absent or less than 3; ventral microducts short, without swollen inner ductules (except for C. reticulolaminae Morrison   ); legs reduced, often represented by a group of setae and a small sclerotic plate, never completely absent, although often hard to detect.

First-instar nymphs. Antennae 5 or 6 segmented; without a seta present near each coxa; with 1 or 2 membranous folds just above anal plates and always showing signs of sclerotization; usually with 3 ventral submedian setae, rarely up to 5, or many setae present on all abdominal segments and thorax, never in 6 pairs (known from the Neotropical region).












Cryptostigma Ferris

Kondo, Takumasa 2010


Ferris, G. F. 1922: 160