Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead)

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 25-30

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Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead)


Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead)  

( Figs 1H, 9 & 10)

Pseudophilippia inquilina Newstead, 1920: 181   . Lectotype ♀, Jamaica (BMNH). [Lectotype by subsequent designation, Qin & Gullan 1989: 225].

Akermes secretus Morrison, 1922: 145   . Holotype ♀, Puerto Rico, on Inga laurina (USNM)   [Synonymized by Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225].

Cryptostigma ingae Ferris, 1922: 160   . Holotype ♀, Puerto Rico, on Inga laurina (BME)   [Synonymized by Qin & Gullan: 1989: 225].

Cryptostigma inquilina (Newstead)   ; Steinweden, 1929: 234. Change of combination.

Cryptostigma secretus (Morrison)   ; Morrison, 1929: 53. Change of combination. [Synonymized by Qin & Gullan: 1989: 225]

Type material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀, Akermes secretus Morrison.   PUERTO RICO: on Inga laurina (USNM)   . Paratypes. PUERTO RICO: Lares, 21.i.1922, coll. not given, ex Inga laurina   , 3 (4) ( BME).

Other material examined. BRITISH GUYANA: Camaria Falls, date not given, coll. I.W. Bailey, ex Triplaris surinamensis   , AL-271-75, labelled as C. secretus (Morr.)   , 3 (3) ( AUCC); COSTA RICA: near Zent, 1924, coll. W.M. Mann, ex Inga laurina   , labelled Akermes secretus   , 1 (2) ( USNM); CUBA: Cien Fuegos, 18.iv.1956, coll. P.A. Berry, ex algarrobo, #56-5866 (56-664) 1 (2) ( USNM); GRENADA: 8.viii.1895, coll. F.W.A., host not given, labelled C. urichi (Ckll.)   secretus   ?, 2 (2) ( USNM); MEXICO: Acapulco, Jardin Botánico de Acapulco, Universidad Loyola del Pacífico, 16˚49'37.9"N, 99˚50'49.9"W, 15.i.2007, coll. T. Kondo, ex Acacia paniculata   , tended by Crematogaster sp.   , 16 (16) ( BME); PUERTO RICO: Lares, 21.i.1922, coll. not given, ex Inga laurina   , labelled C. ingae   , 2 (2) ( BME); 1921, coll. G.N. Wolcott, ex Inga laurina   , slide mounted from type material 6.i.1965, R.F. Wilkey, labelled Cryptostigma ingae Ferris   5 (8: 2 adult ♀ + 6 first-instar nymphs) ( BME); Manati, 1923, coll. G.N. Wolcott, ex Ficus laevigata   , labelled C. inquilina (Newst.)   , 2 (2) ( BME); Mayaguez, date not given, coll. W. Hoover 4 (8: 2 adult ♀ + 6 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM); Mayaguez, 30.iii.1915, coll. R.H. Yan Zwalowenburg, ex branches of Inga laurina   , slide mounted from type material, AL-075-86, labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 8 (8) ( AUCC); Mayaguez, 30.iii.1915, coll. R.H. Yan Zwalowenburg, ex branches of Inga laurina   , slide mounted from type material, AL-085-84, labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 14 (39: 1 adult ♀ + 38 first-instar nymphs) ( AUCC); Mayaguez, let. 30.iii.1915, coll. R.H. Yan Zwalowenburg, ex branches of Inga laurina   , AL-150-77, labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 6 (6) ( AUCC); San Sebastian, 25.xi.1935, coll. M.R. Smith, ex Inga inga   , AL-274-75, 4 (4) ( AUCC); Mayaguez, let. 30.iii.1915, coll. R.H. Yan Zwalowenburg, ex Inga laurina   , labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 1 (4) ( BME); Mayaguez, let. 30.iii.1915, coll. R.H. Yan Zwalowenburg, ex Inga laurina   , labelled A. secretus Morrison   , 2 (11: 3 adult ♀ + 8 first-instar nymphs) ( USNM); San Juan, 19.ix.1911, coll. W.V. Tower, ex guama twigs (= Inga sp.   ), AL-270-75, labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 4 (4) ( AUCC); TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: South Tobago, Friendship State, 7.xi.1918, coll. H. Morrison, ex Haematoxylon campechiamun   , slide mounted from USNM dry material A-912, AL-076-86, labelled C. secretus Morrison   , 13 (13) ( AUCC).

Adult female ( Figs 1H & 9)

Unmounted material. “Color in life of different shades of light reddish or yellowish brown, often varying to hint of lavender purple brown; color of alcoholic specimens dorsally pale grayish brown, with somewhat distinct linear transverse mottling of dark brown, tiny blackish flecks along margin, brown area around anal plates, small white spots at stigmatic area, ventrally with marginal band of dull brown, anterior 2 thirds of surface yellow cream, shading off to brown at edges, ventral abdominal segments about same color as dorsum; whole venter variously mottled, flecked with dark color” ( Morrison, 1922). Specimens collected in Mexico by the author ( Fig. 1H) with a rugose dorsum with clearly visible dorsal segmentation; color ranging from yellow to pink, with anal plates darker, orange brown to red brown, with a conspicuous white wax on each stigmatic area.

Mounted material. Body outline oval to irregularly oval, 1.8–7.0 mm long, 1.7–6.4 mm wide (n=60).

Dorsum. Derm membranous, becoming highly sclerotized at maturity. With 5 large to median-size, subcircular orbicular pores: 1 on head region between antennae and apex of head, and 1 mesad to each spiracular sclerotization. Dorsal setae flagellate, each 32–79 µm long, with about 5–20 setae in a single row around margins of each stigmatic sclerotization, completely absent from rest of dorsum. Simple pores of 2 types: large pores each about 5 µm wide; numerous, scattered evenly on dorsum; small pores, each about 4 µm wide, present in clusters of 4–10 pores scattered on dorsum. Dorsal microducts bilocular, each about 3–4 µm wide, numerous, scattered evenly on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. Sclerotic crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together oval, each plate 216–243 µm long, 81–119 µm wide, anterolateral margin 124–162 µm wide, posterolateral margin 129–146 µm wide; with 11–17 setae on dorsal surface of each plate, plus about 3 ventral subapical setae on each plate; plates located about 1/5 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Margins smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 15–24 µm long, with swollen bases, arranged in a single row, numerous, with about 40–50 between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts very deep, stigmatic sclerotization short, forming a sclerotized crescent incorporating many multilocular pores. Stigmatic setae usually 2 (occasionally 3) per cleft, each 19–47 µm long, bluntly spinose, all subequal in length, but often broken off.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender to sharply spinose, straight or slightly bent, those on mid venter longest, each 34–53 µm long; those close to margin shortest, 24–32 µm long. Ventral microducts each about 3.5 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 259–361 µm wide. Spiracular disc-pores each 4.5–5.3 µm wide, with 5–7 (mostly 5 and 6) loculi, found in a small area around spiracles. Multilocular disc-pores larger than spiracular disc-pores, each about 6.2 µm wide, with 4–10 (mostly 7 & 8) loculi, numerous; present around vulva and in posterior abdominal segments. Antennae each with 1–4 antennal segments, each very small, total length 38–70 µm; with tips of fleshy setae mostly knobbed. Interantennal setae about 3 pairs. Legs reduced, atrophied, with segments fused, total length 38–76 µm. Tarsal digitules similar, slender, usually spiniform, sometimes knobbed. Claw digitules, slender, knobbed. Claw without a denticle. Spiracles larger than legs, located near margin; each spiracular peritreme 108–162 µm wide, anterior peritreme subequal to or slightly smaller than posterior peritreme.

Diagnosis. The adult female of C. inquilinum   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous clusters of 4–10 small simple pores, (ii) dorsal setae flagellate, present in a single row around each stigmatic sclerotization, absent elsewhere, (iii) dorsal microducts present, each bilocular, thick rimmed, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) stigmatic sclerotization present, forming a sclerotized crescent, each with 2–3 stigmatic setae, (vi) each anal plate with 11–17 setae on dorsal surface, (vii) ventral tubular ducts absent, and (viii) some fleshy setae on antennae always knobbed.

Remarks. The orbicular pores on the adult female C. inquilinum   are often overlooked because they are inconspicuous, and the borders of the membranous areas do not show signs of sclerotization as in other species with orbicular pores. Hodgson (1994) and Qin and Gullan (1989) redescribed C. inquilinum   , but neither study mentions the presence of orbicular pores in this species. In the study by Qin and Gullan (1989), the species is described as having no orbicular pores (as compound pores). The author believes that he has examined the same material, or material from the same collections as Hodgson (1994) and Qin and Gullan (1989), and that the orbicular pores were overlooked in these studies. The author only noticed the orbicular pores of C. inquilinum   after collecting fresh material in Mexico on Acacia paniculata   , and later carefully reexamining the type material listed above.

First-instar nymph ( Fig. 10)

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Elongate oval, 765–981 µm long, 539–674 µm wide (n=58).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous, with segmentation delineated by membranous folds. Dorsal setae slender, each 7–10 µm long, present in 2 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, appearing bilocular, present submarginally and in 4 submedian longitudinal rows. Simple pores each about 2 µm wide, present submarginally and in 2 submedian longitudinal rows. Anal plates triangular, each plate 92–107 µm long, 30– 47 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta on anterior part of plate plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis. Eyespots present just above level of antennal scape.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 15–20 µm long; total number 60–66, with about 8 anteriorly between eyes, and, on each side, 5 or 6 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 7–9 between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and about 14–15 between each posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae 1 per cleft, each bluntly spinose and 21–26 µm long.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 6 segmented, total length 243–307 µm. Ventral submedian setae slender, with 1 pair on each of last 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae flagellate, with 7 pairs on each side of abdomen, a single seta between each anterior and posterior spiracles, and 1 pair near apex of head. Ventral microducts each 2 µm wide, about 6 on margin between eyes and anterior stigmatic cleft, 3 submarginally between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and in pairs between each inner and outer submarginal setae on abdomen. Spiracular disc-pores each about 4.5 µm wide, with 5 or 6 loculi, each anterior stigmatic furrow with 7–8 pores, each posterior furrow with 7–9 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 15–17 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 221–501 µm wide. Legs well developed, with numerous setae; trochanter + femur 132–153 µm long, tibia + tarsus 153–170 µm long, base of tarsi swollen in some specimens studied (see asterisk (*) on Fig. 10); microctenidia present on apex of tibia; femur with 4–6 setae. Tarsal digitules similar, slender. Claw slender, without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. inquilinum   can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 5 pairs, (ii) anterior and posterior stigmatic clefts each with 1 stigmatic seta, (iii) with 7–9 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 1 pair of ventral submedian setae on posterior 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with 7–8 pores, each posterior furrow with 7–9 pores, and (vi) ventral submarginal setae flagellate.

Remarks. The above description of the unmounted material was taken from the original description of Akermes secretus Morrison (1922)   , a synonym of C. inquilinum   . The ending of the specific epithet “ inquilina   ” is herein changed to “ inquilinum   ” in order to match the neuter gender of the generic ending – stigma, in accordance to the ICZN code (article 30.1.2.).

Host plants. Boraginaceae   : Cordia alliodora   . Fabaceae   : Haematoxylon campechianum   , Inga laurina   , Inga sp.   , Algarrobo (probably Prosopis juliflora   ). Moraceae   : Ficus laevigata   . Polygonaceae   : Triplaris surinamensis   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Dolichoderinae: Azteca longiceps ( Morrison, 1929)   ; Formicinae: Myrmelachista ambigua ramulorum Wheeler ( Ferris, 1922)   ; Myrmicinae: Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr   , var. tumulifera ( Newstead, 1920)   ; Pseudomyrmecinae   : Pseudomyrmex sp.   , allied to Ps. triplaridis Forel   (as Pseudomyrma   ) ( Morrison, 1922).

Males. Unknown.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Costa Rica, Cuba, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico & Vieques Island, Trinidad & Tobago, U.S. Virgin Islands.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead)

Kondo, Takumasa 2010

Cryptostigma secretus (Morrison)

Morrison, H. 1929: 53

Akermes secretus

Qin, T. K. & Gullan, P. J. 1989: 225
Morrison, H. 1922: 145

Cryptostigma ingae

Ferris, G. F. 1922: 160

Pseudophilippia inquilina

Qin, T. K. & Gullan, P. J. 1989: 225
Newstead, R. 1920: 181