Cryptostigma jonmartini Kondo

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 30-34

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Cryptostigma jonmartini Kondo

sp. nov.

Cryptostigma jonmartini Kondo   , sp. nov.

( Figs 1J & 11)

Material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. GUATEMALA: Escuintla, Parque Auto Safari Chapín, 35 m asl, (14°06’, 90°38’W), 14.xi.2003, coll. P.S. Ward, ex Enterolobium cyclocarpum   ( Fabaceae   ), 1 (1) ( USNM). Paratypes. Same data as holotype, 6 (6: 1 adult female + 4 third-instar nymphs + 1 first-instar nymph) ( USNM). MEXICO: Oaxaca, Temascal, 2.ii.1964, coll. J.H. Janzen, ex Astelia pterocarpa   ( Liliaceae   ), 5 (5: 4 adult female + 1 third-instar nymph), C.I.E 9420, B.M. 1968.27 ( BMNH)

Adult female ( Figs 1J & 11)

Unmounted material. Insects collected inside live hollow branches of host and tended by ants. The following description is based on alcohol-preserved specimens. Third-instar nymphs yellow-cream; younger adult females probably of a similar color. Mature adult females sclerotized, ferruginous, with black mottling on dorsum; dorsum covered by a thin layer of wax. Mature adult females collected in Guatemala on Enterolobium cyclocarpum   become cylindrical in shape allowing them to fit perfectly into the hollow stems of its host. The third-instar nymphs are flat in shape, and the insects only become cylindrical in the adult stage.

Mounted material. Body outline elongate, 3.3–6.0 mm long, 2.1–2.8 mm wide (n=6).

Dorsum. Derm membranous, sclerotized; with 3 subcircular orbicular pores, 1 on head region, and 1 on each side between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas; each pore 160–330 µm wide. Dorsum with apodemes clearly visible, more or less evenly distributed on dorsum. Dorsal setae absent. Cribriform platelets each 4.0–4.5 µm wide, with 3–8 pores, each platelet square, hexagonal, triangular or irregular in shape, sunken, scarce, present mostly around anal plates. Simple pores present, sunken, of 2 types, both evenly scattered over dorsum: large pores each 6–7 µm wide, thick; small pores each 3–4 µm wide, scarce. Dorsal microducts each 3–4 µm wide, thick rimmed, sunken; evenly distributed on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. Sclerotic crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, each plate 183–203 µm long, 70–88 µm wide, anterolateral margin 110–125 µm long, posterolateral margin 113– 135 µm long; with 17–21 setae on dorsal surface; ventral subapical setae not visible due to sclerotization of anal plates; plates located about 1/5–1/4 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Margin rugose. Marginal setae each 18–23 µm long, sharply spinose, with well-developed bases, arranged in a single irregular row, numerous, 30–41 between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic sclerotization present, forming a sclerotic crescent extending dorsad to spiracles. Stigmatic setae bluntly spinose each 13–17 µm long; with 1 in each cleft, often broken off.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, each 13–23 µm long, those near margin shortest. Ventral microducts each 3–4 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 285–375 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 4–6 µm wide with 4–8 (mostly 6–8) loculi, sunken; present medially on abdominal segments up to segment III, but more abundant around vulva and in a marginal or submarginal band in abdominal region, forming a line of pores extending from vulvar area alongside anal cleft to spiracular disc-pores of posterior spiracle. Spiracular disc-pores each 6–8 µm wide, with 5–8 (mostly 6–8) loculi, sunken, numerous, present in each spiracular furrow from laterad to each spiracular peritreme to stigmatic cleft. Antennae reduced, 3 or 4 segmented, total length 105–130 µm long; with tips of fleshy setae commonly branching. Legs reduced, with most segments fused, atrophied; total length 68–114 µm. Tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw digitules, slender, knobbed. Claw without a denticle. Spiracles larger than legs, located near margin; each anterior peritreme 145–178 µm wide, each posterior peritreme 145–200 µm wide.

Diagnosis. The adult female of C. jonmartini   can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (i) body shape elongate oval, (ii) dorsal setae absent, (iii) dorsum with 3 orbicular pores, (iv) cribriform platelets present, (v) dorsal surface of anal plates with 17–21 setae, (vi) with 1 stigmatic seta per cleft but often broken off, (vii) apodemes conspicuous on dorsal derm, (viii) many fleshy setae on antennae branched, and (ix) presence of a marginal band of multilocular disc-pores around abdominal margin. C. jonmartini   appears morphologically closest to C. melissophilum   . However, they can be separated by their body shape and number of stigmatic setae ( C. jonmartini   being elongate oval with 1 stigmatic seta per cleft, and C. melissophilum   being oval with 3 stigmatic setae per cleft). In addition, C. jonmartini   is associated with tending ants whereas C. melissophilum   is associated with bees. For a detailed list of differences, see Diagnosis of C. melissophilum   .

First-instar nymph ( Fig. 12)

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Oval, 1.1 mm long, 0.8 mm wide (n=1).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae present in 2 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows, each seta 18– 23 µm long. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin anterior to eyes. Dorsal microducts 2 µm wide, appearing bilocular, present submarginally and in 2 submedian rows. Simple pores 3–5 µm wide, present submarginally and in 2 submedian longitudinal rows. Anal plates triangular, each plate 93–95 µm long, 25–28 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta on anterior part of each plate plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis. Eyespots present on margin anterior to antennal scape.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 25–30 µm long; total number 67, with 10 anteriorly between eyes, and, on each side, 7 or 8 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 7 between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 14 between each group of posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae each thick, bluntly spinose and 15–20 µm long; with 1 per stigmatic cleft.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 6 segmented, total length 250–260 µm. Ventral submedian setae, slender, present in pairs on last 3 or 4 abdominal segments; also with a pair on thorax between meso- and metathoracic legs. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Ventral submarginal setae slender, in 7 pairs on each side of abdomen, outer submarginal setae longer than inner submarginal setae; and with 1 seta between each anterior and posterior spiracles, and 1 pair near apex of head. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide; with about 7 on submargin between each eye and anterior stigmatic cleft; 6 submarginally between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and about 2 near inner submarginal setae on abdomen; only 1 present next to penultimate inner submarginal setae, but absent from pair near anal cleft and from pair just below posterior spiracular furrow on each side. Spiracular disc-pores each about 4 µm wide, with 5–7 (mostly 5) loculi; stigmatic furrows each with 7–8 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 10–13 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 175 µm wide. Legs well developed; trochanter + femur 123–133 µm long, tibia + tarsus 143–155 µm long. Femur with 2 closely-paired setae (see arrow and circlet on Fig. 6). All tarsal digitules similar, slender. Claw without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed, 1 slightly thicker than other.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. jonmartini   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 5 pairs, (ii) with 1 stigmatic seta in each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft, (iii) with 7 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 4 or 5 pairs of ventral submedian setae, including 1 pair present on thorax between meso- and metathoracic region, (vi) femur with 2 closely-paired setae, and (vii) spiracular furrows each with 7–8 pores.

Host plants. Fabaceae   : Enterolobium cyclocarpum   . Liliaceae   : Astelia pterocarpa   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Formicidae   : Pseudomyrmecinae   : Pseudomyrmex sp.  

Etymology. The species is named after Dr. Jon Martin, curator of the suborder Sternorrhyncha   ( Hemiptera   ) at the Natural History Museum, London. Dr. Martin is an authority of the whiteflies ( Aleyrodidae   ), and is also a taxonomic specialist of aphids ( Aphididae   ), jumping plant lice ( Psyllidae   ) and scale insects (Coccoidea) and has collected many scale insect species, including some described here.

Males. Unknown.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Guatemala, Mexico.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History