Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell)

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 66-70

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Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell)

comb. nov.

Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell)   comb. nov.

( Figs 1K, 28 & 29)

Lecanium urichi Cockerell   ; Cockerell; 1894: 203.

Neolecanium urichi (Cockerell)   ; Cockerell, 1902b: 451.

Akermes quinquepori Newstead   ; Newstead 1917: 349. Syn. nov.

Cryptostigma quinquepori (Newstead)   ; Morrison, 1929: 50. Syn. nov. Guyana (BMNH).

Cryptostigma bunzlii Green   ; Green 1933: 57. Holotype, adult ♀, Surinam (BMNH). [Not examined. Synonymized with C. quinquepori   by Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225.]

Type material examined. Lectotype, hereby designated. Lecanium urichi Cockerell   , adult ♀. TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: Trinidad, West Indies, (Type description: ix.1893, coll. Urich, ex in the nest of an ant Crematogaster brevispinosa   ), slide mounted from USNM Type dry material, 1 (1) ( USNM). Paralectotypes. Same data as lectotype 10 (10) ( USNM).

Lectotype, here designated. Akermes quinquepori Newstead   , adult ♀. GUYANA: Georgetown, Botanic Gardens, 28.xii.13, coll. G.E. Bodkini, ex Macrolobium sp.   , 1 slide two specimens   , Lectotype clearly indicated on label, specimen 4 mm long, 3.4 mm wide ( BMNH)   . Paralectotypes. Same data as lectotype, 3 slides with 5 specimens, including one specimen on same slide as   Lectotype ( BMNH)   .

Other material examined. COLOMBIA: Nandu, 18.xi.1952, coll. D.J. Taylor, ex Herrania camargona   , labelled as Akermes quinquepori (Newstead)   , det. D.J. Williams, D336, C.I.E. 2666/13110, 1 (3: 2 adult ♀ + 1 third-instar nymph) ( BMNH). BELIZE: Cayo, Chiquibul FR., Guacamallo Br.,, coll. J.H. Martin #7694, ex cavities of undetermined tree and tended by ants, 9 (35: 11 adult ♀♀ + 1 pharate adult female + 8 third-instar nymphs + 6 second-instar nymphs + 2 first-instar nymphs + 7 embryonic larvae) ( BMNH). GUYANA: Barakara, 15.vii.1920, coll. W.M. Wheeler, ex red cecropia, labelled as C. quinquepori (Newstead)   , #87, 1 (1) ( BME); Georgetown, 24.ix.1918, coll. H. Morrison, ex Macrolobium acaciaefolium   , labelled as C. quinquepori (Newstead)   , AL-272-75, 10 (10) ( USNM); Georgetown, 24.ix.1918, coll. H. Morrison, ex Macrolobium acaciaefolium   , labelled as C. quinquepori (Newstead)   , AL-137-99, slide mounted from BMNH dry material, 2(2) ( USNM). SURINAME: 27.xi.1931, coll. Bunzli, No. iv.21, Isaric, det. Laing 1933, labelled as C. bunzlii Green   , 2 (2) ( BMNH); v.1921, coll. not given, ex roots of Erythrina sp.   , labelled as C. quinquepori (Newstead)   , AL-138-99, slide mounted from BMNH dry material, 2 (2) ( USNM).

Adult female ( Figs 1K & 28)

Unmounted material. Red-brown, very shiny, nearly circular, moderately convex, segments marked on upper surface by black or blackish transverse lines interrupted at intervals ( Cockerell, 1894). Young adult females orangy in life (J.H. Martin notes on slides collected in Belize,

Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, 3.2–6.2 mm long, 3.0–6.0 mm wide (n=30).

Dorsum. Derm membranous; with 5 large to median-size subcircular orbicular pores; 3 on head region, and 1 on each side between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Dorsum with conspicuous apodemes evenly distributed on dorsum, more conspicuous on submarginal area. Dorsal setae absent. Cribriform platelets present, each plate square, round or irregular in shape and each with about 2–10 pores, width of each platelet about 4–6 µm wide. Simple pores each about 6 µm wide, thick, numerous, scattered on dorsum. Dorsal microducts unilocular, with a sclerotized rim, each about 3.5 µm wide, numerous, scattered on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. Sclerotized crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, located about 1/5–1/4 of body length from posterior margin; each plate 199–226 µm long, 86–94 µm wide, with 10–17 setae on dorsal surface, plus about 3 ventral subapical setae on each plate. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Margin rugose. Marginal setae each 15–20 µm long and sharply spinose, with well developed bases, arranged in a single irregular row; numerous, with about 30 or more setae between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts very deep, stigmatic sclerotization extending to dorsad to spiracles. Stigmatic setae each 14–17 µm long, conical, stout, rarely bifurcated, all subequal in length, with 0–4 in each cleft; often broken off.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, longer on abdominal segments where each 26–38 µm long, shorter around margins where each 11–23 µm long. Ventral microducts each about 2–3 µm wide, scattered on venter. Ventral tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 286–394 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 4–8 µm wide with 5–8 (mostly 6) loculi, sunken; abundant around vulva and present in a submarginal band extending from vulvar area alongside anal cleft to spiracular disc-pores of posterior spiracle; pores also present on mid-venter on last 2 or 3 abdominal segments, and often with a few or several pores on anterior abdominal segments and metathorax. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–7 µm wide with 5–7 loculi; numerous within spiracular furrows extending from laterad to each spiracular peritreme toward stigmatic cleft. Antennae reduced, with 1–4 antennal segments, total length 59–86 µm. Legs atrophied, segments fused, total length 43–135 µm. Tarsal digitules similar, knobbed. Claw digitules, slender, knobbed. Claw without a denticle. Spiracles larger than legs, located near margin; each anterior spiracular peritreme 119–205 µm wide, each posterior peritreme each 140–221 µm wide.

Diagnosis. The adult female C. urichi   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) oval body shape, (ii) dorsal setae absent, (iii) dorsum with 5 orbicular pores, (iv) cribriform platelets present, (v) dorsal surface of anal plates with about 10–17 setae, (vi) with 3 stigmatic setae per cleft, although often broken off, (vii) apodemes conspicuous on dorsal derm marginally and submarginally, and (viii) presence of a marginal band of multilocular disc-pores around abdomen. C. urichi   appears morphologically closest to C. cylindrium   and C. melissophilum   , but can be easily recognized by an extra pair of orbicular pores.

First-instar nymph ( Fig. 29)

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Elongate oval, 792–809 µm long, 555–577 µm wide (n=3).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae slender, each seta 4–5 µm long, present in 2 mid-dorsal longitudinal rows, each with about 5 setae. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin. Dorsal microducts bilocular, each about 2 µm wide, present submarginally and submedially. Simple pores each 3 µm wide, present submarginally and submedially, each pore often with a darker center. Anal plates together quadrate, each plate 85–87 µm long, 30–32 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta anteriorly plus 3 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae sharply spinose, each 13–19 µm long, total number of setae about 70, with about 10 anteriorly between eyes, and on each side, 6 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 6–8 between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 16 between each group of posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft. Stigmatic setae bluntly spinose, each 22–25 µm long, with 1 per stigmatic cleft. Eyespots present on margin laterad to antennal scape.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 6 segmented, total length 270–275 µm. Mid-ventral setae slender, 1 pair present on last 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae slender, with 7 pairs on each side between posterior stigmatic setae and anal cleft, 1 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, and 1 pair on head region. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, with 4 between each antennal scape and anterior stigmatic setae, 3 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, and 14 between each posterior stigmatic area and anal cleft: 2 microducts between each pair of submarginal setae. Spiracular disc-pores, each about 4 µm wide with 3–6 loculi; each anterior stigmatic furrow with about 5 pores, each posterior furrow with about 8 pores. Spiracular peritremes each 14–16 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 151–167 µm wide. Legs well-developed, trochanter + femur 124–135 µm long, tibia + tarsus 146–156 µm long; femur with 4 setae; microctenidia present on apex of tibia. Tarsal digitules similar, slender. Claw with a small denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. urichi   can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of 5 pairs, (ii) each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft with 1 stigmatic seta, (iii) with 6–8 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 1 pair of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with 5–9 pores and each posterior furrow with about 8–11 pores, and (vii) with a pair of microducts between each pair of submarginal setae on abdomen. The first-instar nymphs of C. urichi   appear morphologically similar to those of C. inquilinum   , but can be easily separated from the latter by the presence of a claw denticle (absent in C. inquilinum   ).

Remarks. 2 syntypes of Neolecanium urichi   , reportedly deposited at the USNM ( Cockerell, 1894) as slides, are missing. Therefore, a lectotype is designated from a collection of specimens slide-mounted from the type dry material labelled: “ Lecanium urichi (Cockerell)   ”, deposited at the USNM. Cockerell’s original description of L. urichi   agrees well with the morphology of the specimens obtained from the dry material. Lecanium urichi   was found to be a member of the genus Cryptostigma   , and is morphologically identical to Akermes quinquepori Newstead   , which is here recognized as a junior synonym.

Of the known species of Cryptostigma   , C. urichi   is the most widespread. Like most of the species in the genus, C. urichi   is usually tended by ants within cavities and crevices in the bark and stems of its host ( Morrison, 1922). Green (1933) collected C. urichi   (as C. bunzlii   ) from large roots of Erythrina sp.   in Surinam, although the roots referred to by Green were probably the large exposed roots and not those underground.

Host plants. Cecropiaceae   : Cecropia angulata   , Cecropia sp.   ; Fabaceae   : Erythrina sp.   , Macrolobium acaciaefolium   , Samanea saman   (as Pithecolobium saman   ); Moraceae   : Ficus   (ulmifolia?); Polygonaceae   : Triplaris surinamensis   ; Smilacaceae   : Smilax campestres   ; Sterculiaceae   : Herrania camargoana   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Formicidae   : Dolichoderinae: Azteca alfari cecropiae ( Morrison, 1929)   , Azteca sp.   ( Morrison, 1922); Formicinae: Camponotus novogrenadensis Mayr   (within termite nest, Hamitermes excellens Emerson   ) ( Morrison, 1922); Myrmicinae: Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr ( Hempel, 1900b)   .

Males. Unknown.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Colombia, Belize, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Grenada, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell)

Kondo, Takumasa 2010

Cryptostigma bunzlii

Qin, T. K. & Gullan, P. J. 1989: 225
Green, E. E. 1933: 57

Cryptostigma quinquepori (Newstead)

Morrison, H. 1929: 50

Akermes quinquepori

Newstead, R. 1917: 349

Neolecanium urichi (Cockerell)

Cockerell, T. D. A. 1902: 451