Patcypris outback, Halse & Martens, 2019

Halse, Stuart A. & Martens, Koen, 2019, Four new genera and five new species of ‘ Heterocypris’ from Western Australia (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprinotinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 493, pp. 1-35: 5-10

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Patcypris outback

gen. et sp. nov.

Patcypris outback   gen. et sp. nov.

Figs 2–5 View Fig. 2 View Fig. 3 View Fig. 4 View Fig. 5 , 7A –B View Fig. 7


Valves high posteriorly, strongly arched, LV overlapping RV on all sides, RV without marginal tubercles or with marginal tubercles very small and weakly developed. RV and LV anteriorly without selvage or inner lists. A1 with segments 3–7 short and broad. Rpp with second segment large and subtriangular, with an additional proximo-dorsal lapel-like process. Lpp with second segment lacking long distal flagellum. Lobe ls of hemipenis large and shaped like a pickaxe; lobe ms divided in two distal lobes. CR in both male and female proximally strongly curved and swollen.


This species is named after the company Outback Ecology (now part of Stantec) that collected the type material of this new species. It also refers to the Australian word ‘outback’ that designates any remote arid inland area on the continent. Outback Ecology worked extensively in saline playas of the outback, especially in the Goldfields region of Western Australia.

Type locality Lake Maitland, Western Australia. Approximate coordinates: 27°10′48″ S, 121°05′00″ E. Dried mud

collected by F. Taukulis and V. Campagna, 22 May 2007; specimens raised from dried mud and harvested from the rearing tanks on 14 Aug. 2009 (sample no. LN5217).

Material examined


AUSTRALIA •; Western Australia, Lake Maitland ; 27°10′48″ S, 121°05′00″ E [approximate coordinates]; 22 May 2007; F. Taukulis and V. Campagna leg.; dried mud; specimen raised from dried mud and harvested from the rearing tanks on 14 Aug. 2009 (sample no. LN5217); with soft parts dissected in glycerine on a sealed slide and with valves stored dry in a micropalaeontological slide; WAM 67184 View Materials . GoogleMaps  


AUSTRALIA • ♀; same collection data as for holotype; with valves stored dry in a micropalaeontological slide and soft parts used for (failed) molecular analyses; WAM 67185 View Materials . GoogleMaps  


AUSTRALIA • Several ♀♀ and ♂♂; same collection data as for holotype; either dissected and stored in the same way as the holotype, or as carapaces used for SEM; WAM 67186 View Materials to 67190, RBINS INV 138033 View Materials to 138034 GoogleMaps   3 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; in EtOH as bulk paratypes; WAM 67191 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Other material

AUSTRALIA – Western Australia – Lake Carey • 2 spec.; Goldfields ; 28°57′05″ S, 122°16′58″ E [approximate coordinates]; 2 Apr. 1999; Shane Chaplin leg.; WAM 67197 to 67198 View Materials . GoogleMaps   Lake Lefroy • 3 spec.; Goldfields ; 31°17′35″ S, 121°41′16″ E [approximate coordinates]; 8 Apr. 1999; Shane Chaplin leg.; WAM 67192 to 67194 View Materials GoogleMaps   . – Jim’s Cut • 1

♂; Kalgoorlie; 30°38′59.80″ S, 121°21′19.18″ E [approximate coordinates]; 12 Jul. 2012; Sabrina Arklie leg.; WAM 67195 View Materials . – Lake Disappointment • 1 ♂; Little Sandy Desert; 23°24′50″ S, 122°57′01″ E [approximate coordinates]; 7 Jan. 2016; Michael Curran leg.; WAM 67196 View Materials GoogleMaps   .



See Table 1.



RV ( Fig. 2B View Fig. 2 ). Highly arched, with greatest height situated behind the middle; anterior margin rounded, slightly produced, dorsal margin straight and anteriorly sloping over a short distance, posterior margin broadly rounded, ventral margin slightly sinuous in middle, few very small marginal tubercles on posterior half of ventral margin. In inner view, anterior calcified inner lamella relatively narrow, and devoid of selvage or inner list. Posterior calcified inner lamella even narrower and with inner list in its top half, inner margin of posterior calcified inner lamella slightly elevated.

LV ( Fig. 2A View Fig. 2 ). With shape similar to that of RV, slightly larger. In inner view, anterior calcified inner lamella slightly wider than in RV, but also without selvage or inner list. Posterior calcified inner lamella narrow and with a remnant of an inner list in its upper half. All margins devoid of marginal tubercles.

CARAPACE. In lateral view ( Fig. 2C View Fig. 2 ) showing LV overlapping RV on all sides, but especially along posterior margin. External rimmed pores present ( Fig. 2F View Fig. 2 ). In dorsal view ( Fig. 2I –J View Fig. 2 ) showing greatest width in middle, anterior part ( Fig. 2H View Fig. 2 ) relatively symmetrical and convex.

A1 ( Fig. 3A –C View Fig. 3 ). 7-segmented, generally with robust appearance; all segments relatively short and broad; chaetotaxy typical of subfamily.

A2 ( Fig. 4A, D View Fig. 4 ). With chaetotaxy typical of subfamily; natatory setae reaching slightly beyond tips of end claws. Accompanying seta of aesthetasc y3 about ⅓ longer than aesthetasc. Seta g and claw Gm almost of equal length.

MD ( Fig. 3D View Fig. 3 ). As typical of family. Palp (not drawn) with alpha seta long and thin, set with setulae in proximal half; beta seta longer than alfa seta and set with setulae over most of its length and gamma seta stout and distally pointed, set with setulae on distal half.

MX 1 PALP ( Fig. 4C View Fig. 4 ). With chaetotaxy typical of family; second palp segment slightly longer than basal width and slightly curved. Third endite of Mx1 ( Fig. 4C View Fig. 4 ) with Zahnborsten carrying 5–6 spines on ventral side only.

PREHENSILE PALPS ON T1. Asymmetrical, chaetotaxy of endopodite typical of family (not shown – but see Fig. 3E View Fig. 3 for female chaetotaxy of this limb). Rpp ( Fig. 5B View Fig. 5 ) with first segment widening distally, with two small sensory organs at ventro-distal edge. Distal segment sub-triangular, ventrally bluntly pointed, distal margin almost straight, with additional lapel-like process at proximo-dorsal edge. Lpp ( Fig. 5C View Fig. 5 ) with proximal margin of first segment broad, distal margin only ca ¼ of proximal margin, comprising short length of attachment of second segment; long ventro-distal edge set with two tubercles and two sensory organs. Second segment narrow and curved, without flagellum-like expansion but with distal point swollen.

T2 ( Fig. 7B View Fig. 7 ). With penultimate segment divided, proximally only seta d1 present, seta d2 absent.

T3 (not shown). A cleaning limb, as typical of family.

CR ( Fig. 5D View Fig. 5 ). Curved and proximally expanded; claws relatively short.

ATTACHMENT TO CR ( Fig. 7A View Fig. 7 ). Long, narrow and uniramous.

ZENKER ORGAN (not shown). Typical of family, i.e., ca 3–5 × as long as wide and with numerous spinous whorls.

HEMIPENIS ( Fig. 5A View Fig. 5 ). Large, wide and with two distal lobes: lobe ms large and distally bilobed, lobe ls shaped like a pickaxe, with long, stout and pointed ventral point and upturned dorsal extremity.


VALVES ( Fig. 2D –E View Fig. 2 ). With shape similar to those of male, but with dorsal side more rounded and with postero-ventral corner in both valves more produced. Valve margin anatomy as in male. Carapace in dorsal view ( Fig. 2G View Fig. 2 ) as in male.

A1, Md, Mx1, T2, T3 and attachment of CR as in male.

A2 ( Fig. 4B View Fig. 4 ). With distal chaetotaxy showing sexual dimorphism as typical of family.

T1 ( Fig. 3E View Fig. 3 ). With palp not segmented, relatively short and broad. Chaetotaxy of endopod as typical of family.

CR ( Fig. 5E View Fig. 5 ). With proximal part even more dilated than in male.

Differential diagnosis

As for the genus. In addition, the shape of the two lobes of the hemipenis and the presence of the additional process on the second segment of the Rpp are unique within the Cyprinotinae   .

Ecology and distribution

Patcypris outback   gen. et sp. nov. occurs in shallow playas of inland Western Australia across a latitudinal range of more than 900 km. Rainfall in these areas is low and variable, with an annual mean of 200–300 mm. Patcypris outback   gen. et sp. nov. appears to be a halophile. A report by Outback Ecology from 2011 (not publicly available) stated that its upper salinity tolerance is 145 mS cm-1 (approximately 150 0 0 0 mg L-1 TDS) and Lakes Maitland, Carey, Lefroy and Disappointment are mostly hypersaline when filled (no information about Jim’s Cut is available). Specimens from Lake Disappointment hatched at a salinity of 5000 mg L-1.


The shape of the additional elongated process on the second segment of the Rpp is somewhat variable. In addition to being rather broad and distally rounded, as in Fig. 5B View Fig. 5 , this protrusion was bluntly to even acutely pointed in other specimens.


Western Australian Museum


Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences