Paratetrapedia bifrons, Aguiar & Melo, 2011

Aguiar, Antonio J. C. & Melo, Gabriel A. R., 2011, Revision and phylogeny of the bee genus Paratetrapedia Moure, with description of a new genus from the Andean Cordillera (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162 (2), pp. 351-442 : 381-384

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00678.x

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/690AFE59-6563-7926-FC56-F42E4CFFFA15

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Paratetrapedia bifrons
status

SP. NOV.

PARATETRAPEDIA BIFRONS SP. NOV.

( FIGS 45, 71 View Figure 71 , 92, 123, 159, 160 View Figures 159–170 )

Comments and diagnosis: Paratetrapedia bifrons is easily identified by its conspicuously biconvex frons, whose mid line is strongly sulcated ( Fig. 45). Paratetrapedia bifrons has some characters of the bicolor group: lamella of pronotal collar thinly acute; male S2–S3 with row of continuous setae adjacent to margin; male T6 with margins entirely glabrous; male hind basitarsus without tooth on anterior margin; male S6 without conspicuous rows of stout plumose hairs on margin laterally. It differs from the remaining species in the group mainly by the biconvex frons ( Fig. 45), mesoscutum completely black, without yellow stripes, and female metapostnotum with fine punctures intermingled amongst sparse minute punctures (> 2 pd).

Distribution: Costa Rica; Mexico ( Fig. 71 View Figure 71 ). Description

Holotype male: Body length: 9.1; maximum head width: 2.8; fore wing length (including tegula): 8.6. Colour. Integument of head, mesosoma and legs mostly black; terga and sterna pale brown. Mandible yellow with apex black; labrum, clypeus and supraclypeal area yellow; paraocular area with wide yellow stripe; disc of frons with one thin yellow stripe along mid line; scape yellow, pedicel and flagellomeres reddish brown ( Fig. 45); wide yellow stripe occupying about the lower three quarters of genal area (about 1.2 ¥ F2 diameter). Mediotarsus and distitarsus orange yellow; tibial spurs white. Wing membrane yellow infumate with orange yellow microtrichia, veins and pterostigma orange yellow. Pubescence. Mostly pale yellow, except tibia and basitarsus with pale brown pubescence. Face mostly glabrous, with sparse short plumose hairs. Scape with simple yellow hairs on inner surface, about 0.2 mm in length. Mesoscutum and scutellum with dense short plumose pale yellow pubescence; metapostnotum with short sparse plumose hairs, about 0.07 mm in length; T4 with marginal hair band occupying almost whole margin; T5 with marginal hair band throughout its margin; T6 with margin completely glabrous; S2–S3 with continuous row of stout erect simple setae adjacent to margin; S6 with simple plumose hairs sparse on margin laterally and apex. Integument sculpture. Clypeus and supraclypeal area mostly smooth, with sparse fine punctures (> 2 pd); frons with sparse coarse punctures (> 2 pd). Mesoscutum with dense fine punctures (<1 pd), intermingled amongst sparse coarse punctures (> 2 pd); metapostnotum with fine punctures, mostly sparse (1–3 pd); lateral margins of metapostnotum with smooth areas; mesepisternum with sparse fine punctures (3 pd), with some coarser punctures on upper portion (1 pd). Structure. Epistomal suture convex, above upper margin of clypeus; frons biconvex with mid line strongly sulcate. Lamella of pronotal collar acute throughout its length. Scutellum disc strongly convex. Head about 1.2¥ broader than long (2.8: 2.3); ratio of lower to upper interocular distance 0.78 (1.1: 1.4); clypeus about 1.7¥ broader than long (1.15: 0.67); scape: length 0.7, maximum width 0.2; length of F1–3: 0.22, 0.17, 0.25; diameter of F2: 0.22.

Paratype female: Body length: 8.5; maximum head width: 3.0; fore wing length (including tegula): 8.5. Colour. Similar to male, except that mandible, labrum, and clypeus completely dark brown; disc of frons with one thin short yellow stripe along mid line. Pubescence. Similar to male, mostly pale yellow and legs with brown pubescence; mesoscutum with dense plumose pale yellow pubescence, intermingled amongst sparse simple erect setae (about two times longer than short plumose hairs); scutellum with pubescence similar to mesoscutum except for simple erect long setae (about 0.3 mm in length); metapostnotum with sparse short plumose hairs (about 0.1 mm in length). T4–T6 with marginal hair band present throughout margin. Integument sculpture. Clypeus with dense coarse punctures on lateral portions and sparse punctures on disc (0.5–2 pd), intermingled amongst sparse minute punctures (2 pd); disc of frons with sparse coarse punctures (> 2 pd); antennal scrobe with dense fine punctures (1 pd). Mesoscutum and scutellum with dense minute punctures (0.5 pd), intermingled amongst sparse coarser punctures (2 pd); metapostnotum with sparse minute punctures (2 pd), intermingled amongst sparse coarse punctures on disc (3 pd); lateral margins of metapostnotum and propodeum with small smooth areas; mesepisternum with coarse punctures, mostly sparse (2 pd). Structure. Similar to male. Lamella of pronotal collar acute throughout its length. Scutellum disc convex, weakly concave on mid line. Head about 1.3¥ broader than long (3.0: 2.3); ratio of lower to upper interocular distance: 0.8 (1.3: 1.6); clypeus about 1.9¥ broader than long (1.25: 0.65); scape: length 0.8, maximum width 0.2; length of F1–F3: 0.24, 0.1, 0.18; diameter of F2: 0.2.

Variation: The colour of the terga varies from black to pale brown. One of the specimens has the marginal hair band occupying about one-quarter of the margin laterally.

Etymology: The species name refers to its biconvex frons.

Type material: Holotype male ( SEMC), ‘ Mexico: San \ Luis Potosi , Xilitla \ 400 m, 7 July 1990 \ R. L. Minckley \ ex., on Malvaceae’ ; paratypes: COSTA RICA: 2 females ( BLCU), ‘Costa Rica Alaj.\ Bijagua , 20 km S\ Upala , 10-29 May \ 1991 FD Parker’ ‘ USDA-ARS Bee- Biol.\ & Syst. Lab. Logan\ Utah , FaunalSurvey \ no. 000 025 903’, 1 female ( BLCU), idem except ‘000 008 184’; MEXICO: 1 male ( MNRJ), ‘ Mexico \ Jacubaya \ 1900\ Barret’ ‘ Tetrapedia \ calcarata \ 1900 Friese det. Cr. ’ ‘N.o 15/850\ Proc.’; 1 male ( BLCU), ‘ Mexico: State of\ Vera Cruz , Fortin \ de las Flores-\ Sumidero’ ‘ Planta de la\ cerveceria, Ing.\ Daniel Rábago Res.\ Elev. 2500–3000 ft. ’ ‘H. V. Weens Jr. \ Coll. 17-V-65’ ‘NativeBeeSurvey\ USDA, Logan , Utah \ BBSL517253 View Materials ’ ‘ Paratetrapedia \ ( Paratetrapedia )\ ♂ sp.8\ T Griswold det. 90’; 1 male, ‘ DZUP \ 026620’ ‘ Mex. ’ ‘ Lophopedia \ abdominalis ♂ \ ( Cresson, 1878)\ Det. J.S. Moure, 1992’.

PARATETRAPEDIA CALCARATA ( CRESSON, 1878)

( FIGS 46, 68, 97, 125, 165, 166 View Figures 159–170 )

Tetrapedia calcarata Cresson, 1878: 136 ; lectotype female, designated by Cresson (1916): 113, Mexico (ANSP; examined).

Tetrapedia antennata Friese, 1899: 297 ; lectotype male, designated by Aguiar (2007), Mexico: Veracruz, Orizaba (ZMB, examined).

Tetrapedia calcarata ; Cresson, 1879: 229. Dalla Torre, 1896: 299. Cockerell, 1899: 16. Friese, 1899: 296. Cockerell, 1906: 98. Ducke, 1910b: 369. Cockerell, 1912b: 31. Cockerell, 1919: 211. Schwarz, 1934: 13.

Tetrapedia calcarata Friese [sic]; Lutz & Cockerell, 1920: 562.

Tetrapedia antennata ; Cockerell, 1906: 98. Ducke, 1910b: 369. Friese, 1916: 334. Lutz & Cockerell, 1920: 568. Friese, 1921: 79.

Chalepogenus calcarata ; Cockerell, 1914: 320.

Chalepogenus calcaratus ; Cockerell, 1917: 302. Lutz & Cockerell, 1920: 562.

Chalepogenoides calcaratus ; Michener, 1942: 281.

Paratetrapedia calcarata ; Michener, 1954: 114, figs 65–67 (drawings of S7–S8 and genital capsule of male). Vogel, 1974: 247 [floral record: Ornithocephalus sp. ( Orchidaceae )]. Cane, 1979: 128, fig. 128 (drawing of tibial-femur articulation of hind leg). Heithaus, 1979: 195. Buchmann & Buchmann, 1981: 17, fig. 9 [morphology of oil collector apparatus of fore basitarsus; floral record: Mouriri myrtilioides ( Melastomataceae )]. Cocucci, Sersic & Roig- Alsina, 2000: 69. Michener, 2000: 667, figs 106–2. Smith-Pardo, 2003: 338. Aguiar, 2007: 621. Davies, 2009: 175.

Paratetrapedia calcarata Cresson [sic]; Steiner, 1985: 1540 (floral record: Spachea membranacea ( Malpighiaceae ).

Paratetrapedia (Paratetrapedia) calcarata ; Michener & Moure, 1957: 415. Ayala et al., 1996: 461.

Comments and diagnosis: Paratetrapedia calcarata is very similar to P. bicolor , differing only by omaular angle slightly acute on upper third with adjacent surface of mesepisternum weakly concave, mesoscutum disc with thin yellow stripes; axilla yellow dorsally; female with terga mostly smooth (few specimens with some thin reticulate microsculpture on disc of T3–T4); gena of male with yellow stripe along most of eye margin; paraocular area of male with yellow stripe occupying more than the lower half.

Variation: The colour of terga varies between dark brown to brownish yellow. Some specimens lack yellow marks on the frons. Lamella of pronotal collar in some specimens is slightly low on lateral portions, whereas in others it is higher and diverges from the margins of mesoscutum, but in all specimens it is very thinly lamellate and acute. Some females have microsculpture of thin reticulate stripes on disc of T3. The vertical surface of T1 varies from completely smooth to sculptured with dense minute punctures. One specimen from Costa Rica has the scutellum and metanotum completely yellow. Most of specimens have wing membrane brown infumate but the specimens from Venezuela have it orange yellow infumate.

Male. Body length: 7.0–7.8; maximum head width: 2.25–2.35; fore wing length (including tegula): 6.7– 7.8. Female. Body length: 6.8–7.6; maximum head width: 2.6–2.9; fore wing length (including tegula): 7.2–7.9.

Distribution: Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Venezuela ( Fig. 68).

Type material: Tetrapedia calcarata Cresson ; lectotype female (ANSP) designated by Cresson (1916): ‘Mex.’ ‘ Lectotype \ 2380’; paralectotype male (ANSP): ‘Mex’ ‘ Allotype \ 2380’ ‘Calcarata\ Cress.’; paralectotype male: ‘Mex’ ‘ Allotype \ 2380’ ‘Calcarata\ Cress.’.

Tetrapedia antennata Friese ; lectotype male (ZMB): ‘ Mexico \ Ehrenbg. S.’ ‘11700’ ‘ Tetrapedia ♂ \ antennata \ det. Friese 1898\ n.sp.’ ‘co.\ Type’.

Additional material: See Appendix.

PARATETRAPEDIA TESTACEA ( SMITH, 1854)

( FIGS 9, 21 View Figures 18–23 , 25 View Figures 24–29 , 37 View Figures 34–41 , 68, 96, 126, 167, 168 View Figures 159–170 )

Tetrapedia testacea Smith, 1854: 366 ; holotype female, Brazil: Pará (BMNH, examined).

Tetrapedia obtusa Vachal, 1909: 27 ; lectotype female designated by Aguiar (2007), French Guiana: Kourou (MNHP, examined).

Tetrapedia testacea ; Dalla Torre, 1896: 300. Friese, 1899: 297. Ducke, 1901: 55 [floral record: Stachytarpheta sp. (Verbenacaea)]. Ducke, 1902: 323 [floral record: Psychotria sp. ( Rubiaceae ), Pavonia typhalaea ( Malvaceae )]. Friese, 1906: 91 (misidentification, suggested by geographical distribution). Ducke, 1908: 84. Ducke, 1910a: 364. Ducke, 1910b: 98. Friese, 1923: 3. Popov, 1939: 164, figs D–G (drawings of S7–S8 and genital capsule of male).

Tetrapaedia [sic] testacea ; Schrottky, 1902: 554.

Tetrapaedio [sic] testacea ; Schrottky, 1902: 554

Tetrapedia obtusa ; Ducke, 1910b: 98. Cockerell, 1931: 413.

Chalepogenus testaceus ; Cockerell, 1923a: 449.

Chalepogenoides testaceus ; Michener, 1942: 281.

Paratetrapedia (Paratetrapedia) testacea ; Michener & Moure, 1957: 416. Albuquerque & Rego, 1989: 168; Rêgo & Albuquerque, 1989: 185 [floral record: Byrsonima crassifolia ( Malpighiaceae )]. Silveira et al., 2002: 136.

Paratetrapedia testacea ; Moure, 1941: 518. Vogel, 1974: 219 [floral record: Ornithocephalus sp. ( Orchidaceae )]. Shanks, 1986: 2. Cocucci et al., 2000: 69. Rebêlo, Rêgo & Albuquerque, 2003: 273. Aguiar, 2007: 625. Davies, 2009: 175.

Comments and diagnosis: Paratetrapedia testacea is very similar to P. bicolor , being distinct mainly by orange yellow integument and allopatric distribution. The female of P. testacea has T1 with dense minute punctures on vertical surface and microsculpture of fine reticulate lines on terga. Males have the scape conspicuously dilated on lateral surface, margins of T5–T6 with margins completely glabrous, and S6 with setae only on apex, without rows of plumose hairs on lateral margins.

Variation: Some Brazilian specimens from Maranhão, Goiás, and Amazonas lack the tergal microsculpture of fine reticulated lines. Some specimens have microsculpture only on T4 or only on disc of T3 . A few specimens have disc of mesoscutum and central portion of frons partially pale brown .

Male. Body length: 6.5–8.0; maximum head width: 2.2–2.5; fore wing length (including tegula): 7.1–8.1. Female. Body length: 6.0–8.1; maximum head width: 2.3–2.6; fore wing length (including tegula): 7.5–8.0.

Distribution: Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Pará, Roraima, Tocantins; Guyana; French Guiana; Peru; Suriname ( Fig. 68).

Type material: Tetrapedia testacea Smith ; holotype female (BMNH): ‘Type\ H.T.’ ‘B.M. Type\ Hym.\ 17.B.895’ ‘ Tetrapedia \ testacea Sm. ’ ‘81’ ‘Type F.Sm. Coll.\ 79.22’.

Tetrapedia obtusa Vachal , lectotype female (MNHN): ‘ Juin’ ‘ Guyane Française \ Roches de Kourou \ Coll. Le Moult’ ‘ Tetrap. ♀ \ obtusa \ Vach. ’ ‘ Museum Paris \ Coll. J. Vachal 1911’ ‘ Holotype’.

Additional material: See Appendix.

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

BLCU

Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Paratetrapedia

Loc

Paratetrapedia bifrons

Aguiar, Antonio J. C. & Melo, Gabriel A. R. 2011
2011
Loc

Paratetrapedia calcarata

Steiner KE 1985: 1540
1985
Loc

Paratetrapedia (Paratetrapedia) calcarata

Ayala R & Griswold TL & Yanega D 1996: 461
Michener CD & Moure JS 1957: 415
1957
Loc

Paratetrapedia (Paratetrapedia) testacea

Silveira FA & Melo GAR & Almeida EAB 2002: 136
Albuquerque PMC & Rego MMC 1989: 168
Albuquerque PMC & Rego MMC 1989: 185
Michener CD & Moure JS 1957: 416
1957
Loc

Paratetrapedia calcarata

Davies KL 2009: 175
Smith-Pardo A 2003: 338
Michener CD 2000: 667
Buchmann SL & Buchmann MD 1981: 17
Cane JH 1979: 128
Heithaus ER 1979: 195
Vogel S 1974: 247
Michener CD 1954: 114
1954
Loc

Chalepogenoides calcaratus

Michener CD 1942: 281
1942
Loc

Chalepogenoides testaceus

Michener CD 1942: 281
1942
Loc

Paratetrapedia testacea

Davies KL 2009: 175
Rebelo JMM & Rego MMC & Albuquerque MCA 2003: 273
Cocucci A & Sersic A & Roig-Alsina A 2000: 69
Shanks SS 1986: 2
Vogel S 1974: 219
Moure JS 1941: 518
1941
Loc

Chalepogenus testaceus

Cockerell TDA 1923: 449
1923
Loc

Tetrapedia calcarata

Lutz FE & Cockerell TDA 1920: 562
1920
Loc

Chalepogenus calcaratus

Lutz FE & Cockerell TDA 1920: 562
Cockerell TDA 1917: 302
1917
Loc

Chalepogenus calcarata

Cockerell TDA 1914: 320
1914
Loc

Tetrapedia obtusa

Cockerell TDA 1931: 413
Ducke A 1910: 98
1910
Loc

Tetrapedia obtusa

Vachal J 1909: 27
1909
Loc

Tetrapedia antennata

Friese H 1921: 79
Lutz FE & Cockerell TDA 1920: 568
Friese H 1916: 334
Ducke A 1910: 369
Cockerell TDA 1906: 98
1906
Loc

Tetrapaedia [sic] testacea

Schrottky C 1902: 554
1902
Loc

Tetrapaedio [sic] testacea

Schrottky C 1902: 554
1902
Loc

Tetrapedia antennata

Friese H 1899: 297
1899
Loc

Tetrapedia testacea

Popov VV 1939: 164
Friese H 1923: 3
Ducke A 1910: 364
Ducke A 1910: 98
Ducke A 1908: 84
Friese H 1906: 91
Ducke A 1902: 323
Ducke A 1901: 55
Friese H 1899: 297
Dalla Torre CG 1896: 300
1896
Loc

Tetrapedia calcarata

Schwarz H 1934: 13
Cockerell TDA 1919: 211
Ducke A 1910: 369
Cockerell TDA 1906: 98
Cockerell TDA 1899: 16
Friese H 1899: 296
Dalla Torre CG 1896: 299
Cresson ET 1879: 229
1879
Loc

Tetrapedia calcarata

Cresson ET 1916: 113
Cresson ET 1878: 136
1878
Loc

Tetrapedia testacea

Smith F 1854: 366
1854