Paratetrapedia tocantinensis, Aguiar & Melo, 2011

Aguiar, Antonio J. C. & Melo, Gabriel A. R., 2011, Revision and phylogeny of the bee genus Paratetrapedia Moure, with description of a new genus from the Andean Cordillera (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162 (2), pp. 351-442 : 397-398

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00678.x


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Paratetrapedia tocantinensis



( FIGS 58, 73 View Figure 73 , 103, 135 View Figures 129–137 , 179, 180 View Figures 171–184 )

Comments and diagnosis: Paratetrapedia tocantinensis is very similar to P. lineata in colour pattern, body size, and shape. It differs from P. lineata mainly by the metapostnotum with sparse fine punctures (2 pd), with smooth and shiny integument amongst punctures; epistomal suture straight above upper margin of clypeus; lamella of pronotal collar obtuse in the lateral portions; mesepisternum and propodeum usually yellow. Males can be differentiated by a conspicuously acute tooth on anterior margin of hind basitarsus, and T4 with marginal hair band occupying one third of margin laterally. In the females, the lateral yellow stripes of mesoscutum are fused with the discal stripes along the anterior margin of the sclerite ( Fig. 58).


Holotype male: Body length: 7.8; maximum head width: 2.6; fore wing length (including tegula): 7.0. Colour. Integument bicoloured (reddish brown and yellow). Mandible yellow with apex black; labrum, clypeus, and supraclypeal area yellow; paraocular area with yellow stripe occupying more than the lower half of paraocular area, with upper portion obtuse, weakly sinuous; frons dark brown with one thin yellow stripe along the mid line; genal area yellow; scape orange yellow; pedicel and flagellomeres with anterior surface yellow and posterior surface reddish brown. Mesoscutum black with two thin yellow stripes on disc and lateral margins; scutellum and metanotum yellow; axilla brown; anterior surface of mesepisternum reddish brown. Terga yellow with marginal zone reddish brown. Wing membrane mostly hyaline, weakly yellow infumate on radial cell; microtrichia yellow on basal portion of wing; veins and pterostigma orange yellow. Legs yellow; hind tibia and basitarsus weakly brown; tibial spurs white. Pubescence. Mostly white to pale yellow; except mesoscutum, scutellum, tergal margins, and legs with pubescence weakly orange yellow; T4 with marginal hair band brown. Margin of mandible, lower portion of genal area, coxae, and trochanters of fore and mid legs, and low mesepisternum with long fine hairs, length about twice the width of mandibular base. Scape with long dark brown setae on inner face, about 0.12–0.6 mm in length. Mesoscutum and scutellum with dense short plumose yellow pubescence; metapostnotum with sparse short plumose hairs, about 0.12 mm in length. T4 with marginal hair band of dark brown hairs on about one third of margin laterally; T5–T6 with complete marginal hair band of dense long orange yellow plumose hairs; S2 with one short row of simple setae isolated on mid portion of margin; S3 of male deeply concave in ‘U’ shape, covered by dense short plumose pubescence; S4 and S5 typical of genus; S6 with two rows of stout plumose hairs on lateral margins and short plumose hairs on margin of apex. Integument sculpture. Clypeus with coarse punctures, mainly sparse (1–2 pd), intermingled amongst sparse minute punctures (> 2 pd); frons with coarse punctures (0.5–2 pd). Mesoscutum and scutellum with dense minute punctures (0.5 pd), intermingled amongst sparse coarser punctures (> 2 pd); metapostnotum with sparse fine punctures (2 pd) intermingled amongst integument smooth and shiny; mesepisternum laterally mainly with sparse coarse punctures (2 pd); punctures densely distributed on omaular area (0.5–1 pd). Structure. Epistomal suture straight above upper margin of clypeus. Lamella of pronotal collar obtuse laterally in dorsal view. Scutellum weakly convex, almost flat. Hind basitarsus with acute tooth on anterior margin. Metasoma elongated, about two times longer than broad (3.7: 1.8). Head about 1.2¥ broader than long (2.6: 2.05); ratio of lower interocular distance to upper interocular distance: 0.8 (1.12: 1.40); clypeus about 1.8¥ broader than long (1.1: 0.6); scape: length 0.7, maximum width 0.22; length of F1–F3: 0.18, 0.12, 0.24; diameter of F2: 0.22.

Paratype female: Body length: 8.0; maximum head width: 2.7; fore wing length (including tegula): 6.6. Colour. Similar to male, except for yellow stripe on paraocular area with upper portion obtuse; yellow stripes on mesoscutum contiguous on anterior margin of mesoscutum ( Fig. 85). Pubescence. Similar to male; except for few long setae on margin of mandible; metapostnotum with very short hairs (<0.1 mm); T4 with marginal hair band on whole margin; T5–T6 with marginal band of simple hairs occupying whole margin; row of setae on sternal margin oval sinuated on mid portion. Integument sculpture. Similar to male, but denser; clypeus and supraclypeal area with dense coarse punctures (0.5–1 pd); disc of frons with dense coarse punctures (0.5–1 pd), and lateral portions with dense fine punctures (<0.5 pd). Metapostnotum with dense fine punctures (1–2 pd), intermingled amongst smooth and shiny integument; mesepisternum laterally with sparse punctures, except for dense coarse punctures on omaular area (0.5–1 pd). Structure. Similar to male. Metasoma about 1.6¥ longer than broad (4.2: 2.6); head about 1.2¥ broader than long (2.7: 2.2); ratio of lower interocular distance to upper interocular distance: 0.9 (1.35: 1.5); clypeus about two times broader than long (1.25: 0.6); scape: length 0.75, maximum width 0.2; length of F1–F3: 0.18, 0.12, 0.7; diameter of F2: 0.2.

Variation: Most specimens have the mesepisternum entirely yellow, but in one specimen from Piauí and another from Goiás, it is reddish brown .

Etymology: The species name refers to the Tocantins river in central Brazil.

Distribution: Brazil: Goiás, Maranhão, Piauí, Tocantins ( Fig. 73 View Figure 73 ).

Type material: Holotype male, ‘ DZUP \ 022501’ ‘ Brazil, Goiás, 11 km SE de\ Campos Belos , 13°07 ′ 32 ′ S\ 46°44 ′ 29 ′ W, 650 m, 04.iv.2003,\ Melo , Aguiar , Marchi e\ Gonçalves , em cerradão sobre\ massapé, em Hyptis ’; paratypes: BRAZIL: Goiás: 1 female, ‘ DZUP \ 021840’ ‘ Brazil , Goiás, 11 km SE de\ Campos Belos , 13°07 ′ 32 ′ S\ 46°44 ′ 29 ′ W, 650 m, 04.iv.2003,\ Melo , Aguiar , Marchi e\ Gonçalves , em cerradão sobre\ massapé, em Hyptis ’, 2 males and 4 females ( DZUP), idem except ‘022504’, ‘022496’, ‘021834’ to ‘021836’; Maranhão: 1 female, ‘ DZUP \ 026578’ ‘ Brazil, MA, Urbano Santos \ Reserva Tonico Bacelar \ 3°12 ′ 28S /43°24 ′ 12 ′ W\ 24.i.2004; C.M. Maia’; Piauí: 1 female ( RPSP), ‘30 Km NW Bom Jesus \ PI Brazil 25, 29 I 1993 \ SC23, 44°35 ′ W 8°57 ′ S’ ‘ Camargo, Tavares \ Pedro leg. 931552’; Tocantins: 1 male, ‘ DZUP \ 023439’ ‘ Buriti do Tocantins \ TO, Brazil \ 15-XII-1999 \ C.A.L. de Carvalho leg.’ ‘ Paratetrapedia \ lineata \ ( Spinola, 1851)\ F.F. de Oliveira \ Det. 2000’, 1 female ( DZUP), idem except ‘023421’. GoogleMaps


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Universidade de Sao Paulo


Paleontological Institute