Paratetrapedia flavifrons, Aguiar & Melo, 2011

Aguiar, Antonio J. C. & Melo, Gabriel A. R., 2011, Revision and phylogeny of the bee genus Paratetrapedia Moure, with description of a new genus from the Andean Cordillera (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162 (2), pp. 351-442 : 398-399

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00678.x

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scientific name

Paratetrapedia flavifrons



( FIGS 43, 73 View Figure 73 , 101, 133 View Figures 129–137 , 187, 188)

Comments and diagnosis: Paratetrapedia flavifrons is very similar to P. romani and P. alsinai in the yellow infumate wing membrane, being distinct, however, by the presence of a very large yellow spot on disc of frons ( Fig. 43), the orange yellow lateral portions of mesoscutum, and male basitarsus with only a short tooth on anterior margin.

Distribution: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Pará ( Fig. 73 View Figure 73 ). [Note: data from a specimen from Pará labelled ‘BR-14, km 93\ Belém – Brasília’ were not included in the map ( Fig. 73 View Figure 73 ) because this specimen represents a doubtful record from a locality far away from the main distribution of the species.]


Holotype male: Body length: 9.0; maximum head width: 2.75; fore wing length (including tegula): 9.2. Colour. Integument bicoloured (reddish brown and orange yellow), mostly orange yellow. Mandible yellow with apex black; labrum, clypeus, and supraclypeal area yellow; paraocular area with wide yellow stripe, with upper portion obtuse ( Fig. 43); frons with one yellow stripe along mid line (about 1.5 ¥ F2 diameter; Fig. 43); genal area yellow; scape yellow; pedicel and flagellomeres reddish brown. Mesoscutum with two thin yellow stripes on disc and lateral margins; disc of mesoscutum black and lateral portions orange yellow; axilla dark brown. Hind tibia and basitarsus dark brown; tibial spurs white. Wing membrane orange yellow infumate; microtrichia yellow; fore wing membrane with apical portion dark with brown microtrichia; veins and pterostigma yellow. Terga completely orange yellow, weakly darker on marginal zone. Pubescence. Mostly pale yellow, except the basitarsi of mid and hind leg, and marginal hair band of T4, which have dark brown hairs. Outer margin of mandible, lower genal area, mesepisternum ventrally, coxae and trochanters with long fine white hairs (length more than twice width of mandibular base). Scutellum with long erect simple setae (about 0.16 mm in length); metapostnotum with short plumose hairs (about 0.12 mm in length). T4 with marginal hair band throughout its margin; T5–T6 with dense plumose yellow pubescence throughout its margin; S2 with one short row of simple setae on mid portion of margin; S3 deeply concave in ‘U’ shape, covered by dense short plumose pubescence; S4 and S5 typical of genus; S6 with two rows of stout plumose setae on lateral margins and short plumose hairs on margin of apex. Integument sculpture. Clypeus with coarse punctures, mostly sparse (2 pd), intermingled amongst sparse minute punctures (2 pd); supraclypeal area with disc mostly smooth and lateral margins with coarse punctures (1–3 pd); disc of frons with coarse sparse punctures (<0.5–2 pd); antennal scrobe with dense fine punctures (<0.5 pd). Mesoscutum with dense fine punctures (0.5–1 pd), intermingled amongst sparse coarser punctures (> 2 pd); metapostnotum with dense fine punctures (2 pd), with integument smooth and shiny amongst punctures; mesepisternum with dense coarse punctures (1 pd). Structure. Lamella of pronotal collar mostly acute with lateral portions weakly obtuse. Disc of scutellum weakly convex, almost flat; mid line slightly concave. Hind basitarsus with one very small tooth on proximal third of anterior margin. Head about 1.2¥ broader than long (2.75: 2.2); ratio of lower interocular distance and upper interocular distance: 0.93 (1.17: 1.25); clypeus about 1.5¥ broader than long (1.1: 0.7); scape: length 0.7, maximum width 0.2; length of F1–F3: 0.21, 0.21, 0.26; diameter of F2: 0.23.

Paratype female: Body length: 8.2; maximum head width: 3.0; fore wing length (including tegula): 8.7. Colour. Similar to male, except for yellow stripe on paraocular area with uniform width and upper portion obtuse; disc of frons completely yellow ( Fig. 43). Mesoscutum with two yellow stripes on disc and lateral margins; lateral portions of mesoscutum orange yellow. Pubescence. Similar to male; except for absence of long hairs on mandible margin, coxae, trochanters, and mesepisternum ventrally; T4 with marginal band of dark brown hairs throughout its margin; T5–T6 with marginal hair bands occupying whole margins. Integument sculpture. Similar to male, except for clypeus with dense coarse punctures (0.5–1 pd) and mesoscutum with dense minute punctures (<1 pd); metapostnotum with dense fine punctures (1 pd). Structure. Lateral portions of lamella of pronotal collar weakly obtuse in dorsal view, but conspicuously acute on most of its length. Disc of scutellum convex. Head about 1.3¥ broader than long (3.05: 2.35); ratio of lower interocular distance to upper interocular distance: 0.84 (1.37: 1.62); clypeus about 1.9¥ broader than long (1.30: 0.67); scape: length 0.8; maximum width 0.25; length of F1–F3: 0.25, 0.14, 0.23; diameter of F2: 0.25.

Variation: The specimen from Nova Mamoré (Rondônia) is smaller than the other specimens (length: 7.2; maximum head width: 2.5).

Etymology: The species name refers to its yellow frons.

Distribution: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Pará ( Fig. 73 View Figure 73 ).

Type material: Holotype male, ‘ DZUP \ 023650’ ‘ Vilhena, RO \ 9/X/1986 \ C. Elias, leg.\ POLONO- ROESTE’ . Paratypes: BRAZIL: Amazonas: 2 females ( MZUSP) , ‘ Brazil, Amazonas,\ Novo Airão, 02°38,439 ′ S \ 060°50.407 ′ S, 12.xii.2007,\ R . Gonçalves leg.’; Mato Grosso, 1 female ( MZSP), ‘ Utiariti \ Rio Papagaio, Mt \. X.1966 \ Lenko & Pereira’; Pará: 1 male ( MZSP), ‘PA: BR-14, km 93\ Belém – Brasília \ Ago – out, 1959\ Exp. Dep. Zool. ’; Rondônia: 1 male, ‘ DZUP \ 022966’ ‘ Vilhena, RO\ 29/X/1986 \ C. Elias, leg.\ POLONOROESTE’, 3 males and 4 females ( DZUP), idem except ‘022966’, ‘ 27/11/1986 ’ ‘021837’, ‘ 27/11/1986 ’ ‘023658’, ‘022967’, ‘022971’ ‘ 13/XI/1986 ’, ‘022970’ ‘ 4/XI/1986 ’, ‘022974’ ‘ 4/XI/1986 ’; 1 male, ‘ DZUP \ 026619’ ‘VILHENA Rondônia \ Brazil XI 1960 \ M. Alvarenga leg.’; 1 male ( INPA) , ‘ BRAZIL, Rondônia, Nova \ Mamoré, Parque Estadual de\ Guajará-Mirim , Rio Formoso’ ‘101926S- 643388W, 20.\ 27.x.1995. J. Vidal & L.S. \ Aquino, Arm. de Malaise’ ‘0019729 ’.


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia