Passiflora xiikzodz J.M. MacDougal, Novon 2: 361, figs 2-4. 1992.

Porter-Utley, Kristen, 2014, A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J. M. MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae), PhytoKeys 43, pp. 1-224: 124-127

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Passiflora xiikzodz J.M. MacDougal, Novon 2: 361, figs 2-4. 1992.


19. Passiflora xiikzodz J.M. MacDougal, Novon 2: 361, figs 2-4. 1992.   Figs 54 -55


Mexico, Campeche, Tuxpeña, [18°26'N, 90°06'W], 19 Jan. 1932, C. L. Lundell 1210 (holotype: MICH, [MICH1125811, photograph seen]; isotypes: ARIZ [79504], CAS [CAS0000380, photograph seen], DS [DS 235425, photograph seen], F! [F0044451F], GH! [GH00065789], MO! [MO-312536], NY [NY00232351, photograph seen], US! [US00479061], WIS [v0248704WIS, photograph seen]).


Slender, low-climbing or trailing, perennial vine 1-3 m or more, minutely antrorsely appressed-puberulent throughout with unicellular, curved trichomes, 0.1-0.2 mm long, 0.02-0.03 mm wide. Flowering stems 1.3-2.3 mm in diameter, terete or somewhat compressed. Stipules 1.0-4.9 mm long, 0.3-0.7 mm wide, narrowly ovate, acute to slightly attenuate, longitudinally striate-nerved; petioles (0.1-)0.5-3.0 cm long, inserted 1.4-7.3(-8.9) mm from the basal margins of the peltate blades, with 2, round or elliptic, opposite to subopposite, sessile, discoid nectaries with flat rims, 1.1-1.9 mm wide (on the widest axis), 0.3-1.0 mm high, borne in the distal third of the petiole (0.63-0.87 of the distance from the base toward the apex of the petiole). Laminas 1.1-5.8 cm long, 3.4-13.7 cm wide, coriaceous, commonly variegated along primary veins and major secondary veins, conspicuously peltate, ratio of leaf width to central vein length measured from point of petiole insertion 2.0-5.9, depressed obovate to transversely elliptic (widely divaricately bilobed), lateral lobes 2.6-7.3(-8.1) cm long, 0.8-4.9 cm wide, elliptic, obtuse or acute to slightly attenuate, central lobe commonly obsolete or present as an obtuse to retuse tip, central vein 0.9-4.4(-5.4) cm long (measured from point of petiole insertion), angle between the lateral lobes 53-162°, ratio of lateral lobe to central vein length 1.3-3.0(-4.8), margins entire, hyaline, primary veins 3, diverging and branching above base, laminar nectaries present, 6-17, submarginal, associated with the minor veins of the abaxial surface, 0.8-1.3 mm in diameter, widely elliptic to circular, sessile; tendril 0.4-0.8 mm wide, present at flowering node, absent in inflorescence. Flowers borne in leaf axils or inflorescences; inflorescences 4.5-22.3 cm long, associated reduced laminas 2.1-5.3 mm long, 1.3-2.5 mm wide. Pedicels 1.3-3.1(-9.9) mm long, 0.4-1.1 mm wide, (1-)2 per node; bract(s) absent; spur(s) absent. Flowers 18.8-31.9 mm in diameter with stipe 12.3-19.0(-23.3) mm long, 0.4-0.8 mm wide; hypanthium 4.8-8.1 mm in diameter; sepals 6.5-12.3 mm long, 3.1-6.3 mm wide, ovate-triangular, acute, abaxially and adaxially greenish yellow; coronal filaments in 7 series, the outer 40-50, 6.3-10.4 mm long, 0.1-0.3 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, reflexed above middle and the tips often slightly incurved, very dark reddish purple with yellow at tips, ratio of outer coronal row to sepal length 0.73-1.38, the second 35-50, 2.3-4.8(-5.1) mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, very dark reddish purple with yellow tips, ratio of second coronal row to outer coronal row length 0.23-0.60, the third 40-50, 0.8-3.0 mm long, 0.06-0.13 mm wide, linear, spreading flat, very dark reddish purple with yellow tips, ratio of third coronal row to second coronal row length 0.20-0.65, the fourth through seventh ca. 100 per series, 0.6-1.3 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, linear, capitate, erect, very dark reddish purple, ratio of coronal rows 4-7 to third coronal row length 0.30-0.72(-0.91); operculum 0.3-0.7 mm long, denticulate, very dark reddish purple, nectary absent; limen absent, limen floor 4.7-7.1 mm in diameter, very dark reddish purple; androgynophore 2.7-4.1 mm long, 0.7-1.3 mm wide; free portions of the staminal filaments 2.3-3.6 mm long, 0.4-0.7 mm wide, linear, very dark red dish purple; anthers 1.6-3.1 mm long, 0.7-1.7 mm wide, extrorse at anthesis with their axes maintained parallel to the filament; styles 4.1-6.3 mm long including stigmas, 0.3-0.5 mm wide, greenish yellow with very dark reddish purple tinge; stigmas 0.7-1.6 mm in diameter; ovary 1.3-3.7 mm long, 1.4-2.7 mm wide, widely ellipsoid to globose, greenish yellow. Berry 14.4-26.0 mm long, 12.5-19.00 mm in diameter, widely ellipsoid to ovoid, greenish yellow with white spots, becoming soft at the base at maturity. Seeds ca. 10, 5.0-6.1 mm long, 2.1-2.7 mm wide, 1.3-1.9 mm thick, widely elliptic in outline, acute at both ends, reticulate-foveate with each face marked with 12-24 foveae. Germination type epigeal.


Flowering and fruiting September to June.


Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico. Tropical semideciduous forests (selva mediana subcaducifolia and selva mediana subperennifolia); growing in shrubs or trailing along the ground on soil of little depth, lying directly on top of limestone; 20-500 m.


As discussed under the description of Passiflora itzensis   , I have chosen to recognize MacDougal’s two subspecies of Passiflora xiikzodz   at the species level. The work of MacDougal and molecular and morphological analyses presented here support the specific recognition of this very distinct taxon. Passiflora xiikzodz   is vegetatively identical to Passiflora itzensis   , but numerous floral characters may be used to separate them (see description of Passiflora itzensis   ). The most obvious difference between these species is the extreme reduction or lack of an androgynophore in Passiflora itzensis   . Passiflora sexocellata   is also vegetatively similar to Passiflora xiikzodz   . However, these species differ in the position of the petiolar nectaries, with Passiflora xiikzodz   having nectaries positioned toward the apex of the petiole and Passiflora sexocellata   possessing nectaries at the middle or on the proximal half of the petiole.

In Belize, Meerman (2001) found that Heliconius erato   is an herbivore of Passiflora xiikzodz   .

Specimens examined.

MEXICO. Campeche: Hwy. 186 between Catamul and Xpujil, km 105, 210 m, 16°31.27N, 89°49.58W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 387 (CICY, FLAS); 1 km S de Zoh Laguna, Hopelchén, 18°35.00N, 89°25.00W, Simá 1382 (CICY). Quintana Roo: 16 km S de San José de la Montaña, sobre el camino a Tomás Garrido, Cabrera & Cabrera 5565 (F, MO); Calica, 7.5 km S de Playa del Carmen, Cozumel, 20°34.25N, 87°08.00W, Duran et al. 2272 (CICY); Jardín Botánico, Benito Juárez, 20°50.30N, 86°54.00W, Duran & Cruz 2369 (CICY); road off of Hwy. 186 between Xpujil and San Francisco Villa, 260 m, 18°29.94N, 89°21.40W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 391 (CICY, FLAS); Hwy. 307 between Chetumal and Cancún, 30 m, 18°50.88N, 88°16.46W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 394 (CICY, FLAS); road between of Hwy. 307 and 180 between Punta Nizuc and Alfredo V. Bonfil, 20 m, 21°02.40N, 86°53.30W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 401 (CICY, FLAS); 3.4 km hacia Nuevo Becal, partiendo de la carretera de Zoh-Laguna a Chunchintok, Hopelchén, 18°37.00N, 89°22.35W, Trejo et al. 582 (CICY). Yucatán: camino de Temozán a Xluch, 10 m, Chan 3540 (CICY); Chichén Itzá, Lundell & Lundell 7470 (TEX, US); road off main hwy. (no number) between Vallodolid and Tinum, 20 m, 20°44.32N, 88°21.48W, Porter-Utley & Mondragón 408 (FLAS); 3 km de Tinum rumbo a San Francisco, 23 m, Ucan 2303 (CICY).

BELIZE. Cayo: near Camp 6, Gentle 2377 (GH); along Macal River, Hodges & Klassi 20 (MO); Ruins of Xunantunich, MacDougal 4677 (MO); Crist O Rey, 350 m, Monro 1101 (BM); Xunantunich (Maya ruins), 600-700 ft., Proctor 29617 (BM); 1 mi. NE of Benque Viejo on road to Xunantunich, near the ferry, Turner s.n., 25 March 1990 (MO). Corozal: Cerro maya Ruins, Lowry’s Bight, Crane 513 (TEX); Gentle 255 (US). No Specific Locality In Belize Given: Gaumer 24. 415 (G); Jacinto Hills, 400 ft., Schipp S-603 (F).

GUATEMALA. Petén: Tikal National Park, in ramonal, on Pinar Road about 6 km N, Contreras 3825 (TEX); Santa Elena, on La Libertad Road, km 5, Contreras 6083 (TEX); Dos Lagunas, 5 km W on Carmelita Road, Contreras 8478 (CAS, F, NY, TEX); 8 km N del poblado Melchor de Mencos, frontera con Belice, 17°21'02"N, 89°13'05", Durán et al. 3281 (CICY); Lake Petén Itza, on cliff along shre E of San José, Lundell 17235 (MO, TEX); La Cumbre, San Luis area, Lundell & Contreras 20711 (TEX).