Nitor subrugata ( Reeve, 1852 )

Hyman, Isabel T. & Ponder, Winston F., 2010, A morphological phylogenetic analysis and generic revision of Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora), and an assessment of the relationships of the family 2462, Zootaxa 2462 (1), pp. 1-148: 61-62

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2462.1.1

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Nitor subrugata ( Reeve, 1852 )


Nitor subrugata ( Reeve, 1852)  

Figures 18F View FIGURE 18 , 19F–G View FIGURE 19 , 20E–F View FIGURE 20 , 21F–G View FIGURE 21 , 22B View FIGURE 22 , 23A–B View FIGURE 23

Helix subrugata Reeve, 1852   : pl. 128, sp. 773.

Nanina   (T halassia) subrugata: Albers & Martens, 1860: 59   ; Pfeiffer & Clessin, 1881: 47.

? Helix graftonensis Cox, 1864   [page not numbered].

? Helix clarencensis Cox, 1865: 594   .

Helix (Rhyssota) subrugata: Cox, 1868: 4   , pl. 9, figs 2, 2a.

Microcystis marmorata: Odhner, 1917: 78   , figs 30a, 31.

Nitor subrugatus: Iredale, 1937c: 2   ; Iredale, 1941: 3, fig. 7.

Nitor subrugata helmsianus Iredale, 1941: 3   .

Nitor subrugata: Smith, 1992: 239   .

Synonymy follows Iredale (1937c); Smith (1992).

Material examined. New South Wales, Australia: Syntypes: BMNH 1982236 (one shell measured), Australia   .

Other material: AM C101140 ( N. subrugata helmsianus   syntypes) (one shell measured, photographed), E of Lismore , Wollongbar (28º49' S, 153º24' E), pre 1941 GoogleMaps   , R. Helms   ; AM C333711 (one shell measured, photographed), Grafton , Clarence River (29º41' S, 152º57' E), pre 1912 GoogleMaps   ; AM C334537 (one specimen dissected), N of Lismore , Whian Whian State Forest, Red Scrub Flora Reserve (28º38' S, 153º20' E), complex notophyll vine forest, 15 May 1976, I. Loch, P.H. Colman GoogleMaps   .

Description. External morphology: Shell ( Figures 19F–G View FIGURE 19 , 20E–F View FIGURE 20 , 21F–G View FIGURE 21 ) 5.3 whorls, light yellowbrown; whorl profile flattened above and rounded below angulate periphery; umbilicus open, very narrow Ushape; otherwise shell shape and sculpture as for genus. Animal yellow. Right mantle lap very short, narrow, finger-shaped; left mantle lap absent; mantle lobes as for genus. Caudal horn moderately large; caudal foss vertical slit in tail.

Mantle cavity: As for genus. Mantle with no pigmentation.

Digestive system: As for genus.

Genital system ( Figures 18F View FIGURE 18 , 22B View FIGURE 22 , 23A–B View FIGURE 23 ): As for genus. Bursa copulatrix internally smooth. Epiphallus enters penis through short verge; penis internally smooth, four to five longitudinal penis pilasters present. Penial sheath present, enclosing only penis. Epiphallus longer than penis, internally with longitudinal pilasters. Spermatophore as for genus.

Radula: Not   examined.

Range and habitat. Nitor subrugata   ranges from around Grafton in northern New South Wales to Mt. Tamborine, Queensland, although some specimens are known from further south, around Dungog (AM C374283, AM C 374285). It has been found in notophyll and microphyll vine forest, rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest and scrubs, under logs and rocks and in leaf litter.

Remarks. Nitor helmsianus   and N. graftonensis   (= clarencensis   ) have been synonymised with N. subrugata   , following Smith (1992). Nitor helmsianus   was originally described as a subspecies of N. subrugata   based on its smaller size, higher spire, darker colour with less marked plications and narrower umbilicus. Examination of shells from throughout the range of N. subrugata   and measurements of the type material of N. helmsianus   and N. subrugata   show little difference in size and shape, so Smith’s (1992) synonymy of the two species is followed here.

Nitor graftonensis   and N. clarencensis   were described by Cox (1864, 1865) in consecutive years. Neither species was illustrated, but both had identical descriptions with the only difference being the specific name used. While it is probable that the two names are synonyms, the types of both species have been lost, which in the absence of figures makes it impossible to accurately determine their status. However, because the dimensions given (diameter 12 mm, height 7 mm, number of whorls 5.5) match those of N. subrugata   , the aperture is described as angular and the locality correlates, we treat these names as probable synonyms of N. subrugata   .


Australian Museum


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Nitor subrugata ( Reeve, 1852 )

Hyman, Isabel T. & Ponder, Winston F. 2010

Nitor subrugata: Smith, 1992: 239

Smith, B. J. 1992: 239

Nitor subrugata helmsianus

Iredale, T. 1941: 3

Nitor subrugatus:

Iredale, T. 1941: 3
Iredale, T. 1937: 2

Microcystis marmorata: Odhner, 1917: 78

Odhner, N. H. J. 1917: 78

Helix (Rhyssota) subrugata:

Cox, J. C. 1868: 4

Helix clarencensis

Cox, J. C. 1865: 594


Pfeiffer, L. & Clessin, S. 1881: 47
Albers, J. C. & Martens, E. von 1860: 59