Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke

Faden, Robert B., 2008, Commelina mascarenica (Commelinaceae): an overlooked Malagasy species in Africa, Adansonia (3) 30 (1), pp. 47-55: 49-52

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5190388

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6074594F-D359-D444-78B7-40BCFB53FC3B

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke
status

 

Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke  

( Fig. 1 View FIG )

Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke   in DC., Monographiae Phanerogamarum 3: 174 (1881); Perrier de la Bâthie, Notulae Systematicae 5: 189 (1936); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 37: 22 (1938); Faden, Flora of

Somalia, vol. 3: appendix, 585 (2006). — Type: Comoro Islands [“Îles Maurice, de Madagascar et Comores” on label], VIII-X.1838, MacWilliam s.n. (G!).

Commelina sp. D   , Faden, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, 660 (1974); Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, 2nd ed., 304 (1994).

Commelina sp. 5   , Faden, Flora of Somalia 4: 91 (1995).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Comoro Islands. Anjouan, V   .1850, B. Boivin s.n. ( P). — Mohély , III.1850, B   . Boivin s.n. ( P). — Grande Comore? Anjouan?, V   .1850, B. Boivin s.n. ( P). — Anjouan, Tsantsany , 12.XII.1921, R   . Decary 791 ( P). — Anjouan, VIII.1923, Waterlot 982 ( P)   .

Kenya. District Unknown, “British East Africa ”, C   . F   . Elliott 236 B (336 B?) ( K)   . — Kilifi District, Sabaki , 4 mi [6.4 km] N of Malindi, alt. 20 ft [6.25 m], 14.XI.1961, R   . Polhill & S   . Paulo 759 ( EA, K). — Rabai Hills, Mombaz , IX.1885, W   . E   . Taylor s.n. ( BM). — Vipingo , 20 mi N of Mombasa, 16.XII.1953, B   . Verdcourt 1056 S ( EA)   . — Kwale District, just before Shimoni, 4°38’S, 37°23’E, alt. c. 5 m, cultivated at Smithsonian Institution , 21.XII.2005, R GoogleMaps   . B GoogleMaps   . Faden 2005/004 ( US) (grown from seed of R. B. & A. J. Faden 77/362bis). — Shimba Hills, Tanga road near Marere Water Works , alt. 700’ [213 m], 20.IV.1968, F   . Magogo & P   . Glover 904 ( K). — Lamu District, Nyangore Bridge , W of Witu, 6.III.1977, S   . S   . Hooper & C   . C   . Townsend 1217 ( EA, K). — Mombasa District, Mombas, Ali’s compound, VII.1932, Lady M   . Jex-Blake 2272 ( EA, K). — Mombasa [or Kwale?] District, Nyali Beach Hotel , 6 mi [9.6 km] from Mombasa, alt. 30 ft [9.15 m], 24.IV.1950, R   . W   . Rayner 294 ( EA, K). — South Kavirondo District, beside the road 2 km after Osani market, alt 1200 m, 5. V   .1978, A   . C   . Plaizier 1295 ( EA). — Mainland, near Homa Point, Kavirondo Gulf , alt. 3300 ft [1006 m], IX.1933, E   . R   . Napier 5384 A ( EA, K)   . — Lukiri Island , VII.1934, E   . R   . Napier 6814 ( EA?, K). — Tana River District: Tana River National Primate Reserve, Mchelelo Research Camp , 24.VII.1988, K   . Medley 373 ( K). — Teita District, Tsavo National Park East, road to Lugard’s Falls , 3°03’S, 38°47’E, alt. 350 m, 22. I GoogleMaps   .1966, M GoogleMaps   . Hucks 634 ( EA). — Voi [original label; rewritten EA label has “Lugard’s Falls”, as in Hucks 634], 9.III.1966, M   . Hucks 703 ( EA). — Tsavo National Park, Voi, 31.IV.1962, Lucas, Jeffrey & Kirika 271 ( K). — Voi , alt. 2000 ft [610 m], 6. V   .1931, E   . R   . Napier 907 ( EA)   .

Madagascar. Chiefly from NW Madagascar, R. Baron 5329 ( K).

N Madagascar, R. Baron 6358 ( K, P); 6435 ( K, P). — Without locality, R. Baron 6816 ( K).

Est, sous-préfecture de Vohémar, commune rurale de Daraina, Fokontany d’Ankijabe, champs de M   . Tombovelo, 134 m, 26.XI.2004, A   . Maraia AM038 ( US)   . — Sambirano, Nossi-Bé, IX.1879, J. M   . Hildebrandt 3157 ( P, K). — Nossi-Bé, VI   .1847, M. Boivin 2010 ( P). — Nossi-Bé, Forêt de Lokobe , VI   .1933, H. Perrier 7282 bis ( P). — Ambanja , Waterlot 286 ( P)   .

Ouest, Diégo Suarez, Bernier 96 ( P). — Mahatsinjo , 26.XI.1916, R   . Decary 68 ( P). — Mont Tsitondriana (Boïna), I   .1902, H. Perrier 7282 ( P)   .

Mozambique. North , Mouth of Msalu River [= Rio Messala], X.1911, C   . E   . F. Allen 25 ( K). — Cabaceira Grande beim Institut Leo XIII, IV.1894, Prelado 58 ( BM)   .

Somalia. S1   , Irrigation S of Baidoa, 3°05’N, 43°39’E, alt. 375 m, 14.II.1982 GoogleMaps   , J. J. Beckett 1478 ( EA)   . — S2   , Burane-Mahaddei road, 1.9 km, c. 2°59’N, 45°35’E, 5.XII.1988 GoogleMaps   , R. B. Faden   & P. Kuchar 88/269 ( US). — Marka, alt. 60 m, Gerrard 311/2 ( K)   .

Tanzania. Bagamoyo District , 12 km on Chalinze- Korogwe road, 6°2’08”S, 38°18’50”E,alt. 485 m, 2. VI GoogleMaps   .1996, Faden, Phillips, Muasya & Macha 96/26 ( K, US)   .

Handeni District , Kwa Mkono, alt. 1500 ft. [457 m], 27.VI.1966, M. E   . Archbold 754 ( K). — Kilwa District : Selous [Game Reserve], Kingupira, 8°28’S, 38°33’E, alt. c. 125 m, 19.IV.1976, K GoogleMaps   . Vollesen 3496 ( EA)   .

Morogoro District, Morogoro Agricultural College, 6.VII.1970, C. H. S   . Kabuye 291 ( K).

Pare District, 3 km on Hedaru-Same road, c. 4°30’S, 37°54’E, alt. 610-910 m, 28.VI.1970, C. H. S GoogleMaps   . Kabuye 165 ( EA, K). — Pemba, Vitongoge , 14.X.1929, J. H   . Vaughan 915 ( EA)   .

Rufiji District , Rufiji, alt. 50 ft [15 m], 1.I.1931, H   . Musk 59 ( K)   .

Tanga District, Muheza , alt. 100 m, 5.X.1984, M. E   . Archbold 3027 ( K)   . — Tanga, road to jetty, alt. 5 m, 5.IX.1987, M. E   . Archbold 3151 ( K). — Kulhinlaus [?], I.1893, C   . Holst 2079a ( K)   .

Uzaramo Dsitrict, Silver Sands [Hotel?], N coast of Dares-Salaam, 13. VI.1965, B. J. Harris 105 ( K).

Zanzibar, Migombani , 10.II.1931, J. H   . Vaughan [ K]1859 ( EA)   . — Zanzibar, near Kufile , 12. I.1931, J. H   . Vaughan [ K]1828 ( EA, K)   . — Zanzibar, 1931, J. H   . Vaughan 1859 ( K)   .

DISTRIBUTION. — Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Anjouan, Mohély ), Somalia ( S1, 2), Kenya ( K5, 7), Tanzania ( T3, 6, P, Z), Mozambique ( MOZ-N) ( Fig. 2)   .

DESCRIPTION

The following description is based on all of the herbarium specimens that have been examined as well as the plants in cultivation.

Perennial herb; roots thin, fibrous, usually confined to the base of the plant, occasionally produced from decumbent stems; shoots sprawling, scrambling or more or less scandent, often straggling through other herbaceous vegetation or shrubs, much branched, to 1.2 m tall or long; internodes to 17 cm long, glabrous, or with a line of hook-hairs continuous with the pubescence of the distal sheath. Leaves distichous or spirally arranged, sheaths to 4 cm long, often split longitudinally, sometimes tinged with red, with a line of hook-hairs along the fused edge or occasionally more widespread, sometimes subglabrous, apex cilioliate with hook-hairs or eciliolate, lamina sessile, asymmetric at the base, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, lanceolate-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 3.5-14.5 × (0.6-)1-3(-3.5) cm, apex acuminate to acute, base cordate to cordateamplexicaul in the distalmost leaves, rounded to cuneate in the more proximal leaves, margins usually planar, rarely finely undulate, especially proximally, scabrous, at least distally, adaxial surface sparsely to densely puberulous with minute hook-hairs which are usually most concentrated on the midrib, abaxial surface glabrous to sparsely puberulous (rarely ± densely puberulous) usually with longer hookhairs, occasionally with all short hook-hairs or with a mixture of long and short hook-hairs. Spathes solitary, rarely 2 or 3 in close proximity, sometimes bracteate, peduncle 1-3.8 cm long, puberulous with hook-hairs of two sizes, at least distally and in a line continuous with the fused spathe margins, sometimes densely puberulous all around, spathes usually slightly falcate because of a deflexed tip, less commonly because the whole folded edge is curved, occasionally not falcate, 1.8-2.9 cm long, 0.9-1.6 cm high, apex acute to acuminate, sometimes mucronate, base cordate to hastate, margins fused for 3-6(-6.5) mm, sparsely ciliolate along the fused edge and just distal to it with hook-hairs, otherwise glabrous, surfaces slightly paler towards the folded edge, puberulous with hook-hairs of two sizes, the long ones 3-celled, the smaller ones very inconspicuous; upper cincinnus 1(-2)-flowered, the flowers male, peduncle long-exserted from the spathe, 13-28 mm long, densely puberulous with hook-hairs of two sizes; lower cincinnus 4-6-flowered, peduncle 7-16 mm long, puberulous at least distally with minute hook-hairs, occasionally a few longer ones intermixed; bracteoles usually present. Flowers bisexual and male, (1.5-) 2.1-2.3 cm wide; pedicels of flowers of both cincinni 3-6 mm long, glabrous; sepals hyaline white with transparent margins, upper sepal lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 3.5-5 × 1.5-2 mm, paired sepals ovate to ovate-elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 4-6.2 × 3-4.4 mm; paired petals 10-15 × 8-12 mm, blue (pale blue, sky blue, flax blue, powder blue), occasionally mauve-blue, pale mauve or white, limb broadly ovate or ovate-reniform, c. 8.5 × 12 mm, apex rounded to truncate or emarginate, base truncate to cordate, claw 4-7 mm long, concolorous with the limb; medial petal somewhat boat-shaped, ovate, c. 4-7 × 3.5 mm, concolorous with the paired petals; staminodes 3, subequal or occasionally 1 abortive, filaments 3.5-7 mm long, lavender or bluish tipped with yellow, antherodes 6-lobed, c. 2 mm in diameter, yellow; lateral stamens with filaments (8-) 9.5-14.5 mm long, whitish, or lavender to bluish and tipped with greenish yellow or white, anthers elliptic to oblong-elliptic or ovate, (1-) 1.3-2 mm long, greenish white with a grey connective, pollen golden yellow; medial stamen with filament 5.5- 8.5 mm long, lavender or bluish at base, greyish yellow-green or yellow above, anther saddle-shaped, c. 1.7-2.9 mm long, yellow with grey-green margins or entirely yellow, pollen golden yellow; ovary c. (1-) 2-2.5 mm long, green, style 10-12 mm long, lavender shading to blue at apex, stigma slightly enlarged, violet. Capsule trilocular, bivalved, oblong, 5-seeded, 8.3-10 × (3.6-) 4.7-6 mm, constricted between the seeds, stramineous with dark brown flecks, apex emarginate-apiculate or retuse-apiculate, dorsal locule 1-seeded, indehiscent, striate, with a low, longitudinal, middorsal ridge, ventral locules 2-seeded, dehiscent. Dorsal locule seed embedded in the capsule wall, represented by a low striate hump, dorsiventrally compressed, narrowing in thickness on the ventral surface both apically and basally, oblong-elliptic to oblong, 3.85-4.34 × 2.25-2.3 mm, the basal end of the seed rounded to truncate or emarginate, the apical end emarginate, testa medium brown to dark brown, smooth, not farinose; ventral locule seeds cylindric to ellipsoid, not at all compressed, 3.1-4.1 × 2-2.35 mm, very rarely with a weak middorsal ridge, testa smooth or faintly alveolate or faintly radially ribbed, dark brown with conspicuous or inconspicuous lighter brown mottling or gray mottled with dark brown, densely white-farinose, embryotega a very low hump not well differentiated from the testa, with a short, blunt or sharp apicule, otherwise inconspicuous, hilum dark brown or black, with light brown margins, raised, neither winged nor appendaged, straight, 75-92% the length of the seed.

HABITAT

Roadsides, grassland, open bush, scattered trees and shrubs, herbaceous vegetation, wet ground, thicket edge, disturbed riverine areas; sea level to 700(-1000) m; flowering specimens have been seen from January, March to July, and September to November.

CHROMOSOME NUMBER

2 n = 60 (counted from plants grown from seeds of Faden & Kuchar 88/269 from Somalia by Mauro Grabiele, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, the same count that we approximated from that collection and also from cultivated material of Faden 2005/004 from coastal Kenya).

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

C

University of Copenhagen

F

Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

N

Nanjing University

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

EA

National Museums of Kenya - East African Herbarium

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

BM

Bristol Museum

US

University of Stellenbosch

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

J

University of the Witwatersrand

M

Botanische Staatssammlung München

I

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

H

University of Helsinki

Z

Universität Zürich

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Liliopsida

Order

Commelinales

Family

Commelinaceae

Genus

Commelina

Loc

Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke

Faden, Robert B. 2008
2008
Loc

Commelina sp. 5

Faden 1995: 91
1995
Loc

Commelina mascarenica C.B.Clarke

C. B. Clarke 1938: 22
Perrier de la Bathie 1936: 189
C. B. Clarke 1881: 174
1881