Anolis pentaprion COPE, Cope

Köhler, Gunther, 2010, A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae), Zootaxa 2354, pp. 1-18: 12-13

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.193523

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Anolis pentaprion COPE


Anolis pentaprion COPE   1862

Anolis pentaprion: Dunn (1930)   , Schmidt (1933), Barbour (1934), Gaige et al. (1937), Taylor (1956; in part.), Etheridge (1959; in part), Myers (1971), Poe (2004; in part.).

Anolis panamensis BOULENGER   , 1890: 81; two syntypes BMNH 1946.8.13.7– 8 from “ Panama.” Norops pentaprion: Köhler   (2001; in part.).

Neotype designation. The holotype of Anolis pentaprion   , supposedly designated to be deposited at USNM, is lost ( Barbour 1934, Myers 1971). K.A. Tighe (pers. comm. 2 September 2009) wrote that “the holotype [of Anolis pentaprion   ] was apparently never returned to the USNM after Cope described it. There is an old lost type card in Cochran's handwriting that has the information from the original description, but no catalogue number.”

To avoid future uncertainties I herewith designate SMF 83608 View Materials as the neotype of Anolis pentaprion Cope.   SMF 83608 View Materials was collected on 12 August 2009 by Johannes Köhler and Arne Schulze at San Rafael, ca. 15 km S Los Chiles, 10.73719 °N, 84.49378 °W, 60 m elevation, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Original field number JJK 182. SMF 83608 View Materials is an adult male as indicated by its partially everted hemipenes; SVL 61.0 mm; tail length 79.0 mm (tail complete); head length 15.4 mm; head width 9.5 mm; snout length 7.4 mm; ear length 0.8 mm; ear height 1.5 mm; interparietal length 1.3 mm; interparietal width 1.1 mm; axilla –groin –distance 26.0 mm; shank length 12.5 mm. Scalation characteristics of SMF 83608 View Materials are given in parentheses in the description below.

Diagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen examined 77.0 mm in males, 74 mm in females) of the genus Anolis   (sensu Poe, 2004) that differs from all Central American anoles except A. beckeri   , A. charlesmyersi   , A. cristifer   , A. fungosus   , A. salvini   , A. utilensis   by (1) having extremely short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hindlimb usually reaching to level of tympanum; ratio shank length / head length 0.49–0.84); (2) smooth, juxtaposed ventral scales; (3) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length / SVL 1.0– 1.5). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. beckeri   by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest) and by having gorgetal rows with 17–25 narrowly spaced scales (versus gorgetal rows with 4–10 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. charlesmyersi   by having a pink dewlap in life with purple pigment between rows of gorgetal scales and regular rows with 17–25 small narrowly spaced gorgetal scales (versus a brick red dewlap with few large widely spaced gorgetal scales scattered across the dewlap or in loosely arranged rows with 4–9 widely spaced scales). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. cristifer   by having a double row of slightly enlarged middorsal scales, not forming a serrated crest (versus a serrated middorsal crest, at least on posterior portion of dorsum, present in A. cristifer   ). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. fungosus   by lacking bony parietal protuberances (versus having a pair of small bony parietal protuberances posterior and lateral to interparietal plate). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. salvini   by having smooth, obliquely conical ventral scales (versus keeled), lacking a dark interorbital bar (versus present), and lacking enlarged postcloacal scales (versus males with a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales). Anolis pentaprion   differs from A. utilensis   by having the proximal subdigital scales of toes differentiated as slightly broadened lamellae (versus those scales granular) and by having a pronounced serrated caudal crest (versus lacking a pronounced serrated caudal crest).

Description. SVL 52.0–77.0 (62.6 ± 5.7) mm in males, 46.0–64.0 (56.4 ± 5.4) mm in females; for other morphometric data see Table 1; dorsal head scales in internasal, prefrontal, and frontal areas rugose; scales in parietal area rugose to smooth; shallow frontal and parietal depressions present; 5–8 postrostrals (7); anterior nasal divided, lower scale contacting rostral and first supralabial; 5–9 internasals (6); canthal ridge sharply defined; scales comprising supraorbital semicircles ridged, especially anterior ones, largest scale in semicircles larger than largest supraocular scale; supraorbital semicircles well defined, broadly in contact with each other or separated by one scale at narrowest point (in contact); 1–4 scales separating supraorbital semicircles and interparietal at narrowest point (2); interparietal well defined, irregular in outline, longer than wide, larger than size of ear opening; about 6–16 enlarged, smooth to faintly keeled supraocular scales on each side (9), in 2–3 rows; enlarged supraoculars completely separated from supraorbital semicircles; three short superciliaries, posterior one shortest; usually 3 enlarged canthals; 5–9 scales between second canthals (8); 6–15 scales present between posterior canthals (6); loreal region slightly concave, 13–29 mostly smooth or rugose (some keeled) loreal scales (16) in a maximum of 3–6 horizontal rows (3); 7–10 supralabials (9) and 7–10 infralabials (9) to level below center of eye; suboculars smooth to rugose, in broad contact with supralabials; ear opening vertically oval; scales anterior to ear opening slightly larger than those posterior to ear opening; usually 6, occasionally 5 postmentals (6), outer pair largest; gular scales not keeled; male dewlap moderately large, extending to beyond level of axillae onto chest; male dewlap with 5–7 horizontal gorgetalsternal scale rows, about 16–18 scales per row; female dewlap well developed, extending to level of axillae; female dewlap with 4–7 horizontal gorgetal-sternal scale rows, with about 9–15 scales per row; about 2 middorsal scale rows slightly enlarged, mostly smooth, dorsal scales lateral to middorsal series grading into granular lateral scales; no enlarged scales among granular laterals; lateral scales granular, slightly smaller than largest dorsal scales; about 73–108 dorsal scales along vertebral midline between levels of axillae and groin in males (73), about 88–110 in females; about 56–80 dorsal scales along vertebral midline contained in one head length in males (52), about 45–70 in females; ventral scales on midsection slightly larger than largest dorsal scales; ventral body scales smooth, obliquely conical, juxtaposed; about 67–86 ventral scales along midventral line between levels of axilla and groin in males (84), about 65–93 in females; about 34–62 ventral scales contained in one head length in males (44), about 36–52 in females; about 134–190 scales around midbody in males (154), about 136–162 in females; tubelike axillary pocket absent; precloacal scales not keeled; enlarged postcloacal scales absent; tail oval at about midlength; basal subcaudal scales smooth to faintly keeled; lateral caudal scales keeled, homogeneous, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; dorsal medial caudal scale row enlarged, keeled, not forming a crest; 2 median subcaudal scale rows distinctly enlarged, keeled; most scales on lateral surface of antebrachium smooth; 29–33 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II –IV of Toe IV of hind limbs (29); 6–9 subdigital scales on Phalanx I of Toe IV of hind limbs (6); longest toe of adpressed hind limb usually reaching to shoulder region.

The coloration in life of an adult male ( SMF 80961 View Materials ) from Bartola, Department Río San Juan, Nicaragua, was recorded as follows: Dorsal and lateral surfaces of body, limbs and anterior half of tail Clay Color (123 B) with Raw Umber (223) and Beige (219 D) blotches; dorsal surface of head Cinnamon Drab (119 C); dewlap Vinaceous (4) with rows of Magenta (2) blotches and dirty white scales. The coloration of the dewlap in life of another adult male ( SMF 82100 View Materials ) from the same locality was recorded as Pink (7) with rows of Magenta (2) blotches and dirty white scales.

Geographic distribution: Along the Caribbean versant of Lower Central America from southern Nicaragua to northwestern Colombia; also on Pacific versant in central and eastern Panama.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg














Anolis pentaprion COPE

Köhler, Gunther 2010

Anolis panamensis BOULENGER

BOULENGER 1890: 81