Podospermum clade

Zaika, Maxim A., Kilian, Norbert, Jones, Katy, Krinitsina, Anastasiya A., Nilova, Maya V., Speranskaya, Anna S. & Sukhorukov, Alexander P., 2020, Scorzonera sensu lato (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) - taxonomic reassessment in the light of new molecular phylogenetic and carpological analyses, PhytoKeys 137, pp. 1-85: 1

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scientific name

Podospermum clade


Podospermum clade  

Podospermum   DC. in Lamarck & Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 4: 61. 1805, nom. cons.

Scorzonera sect. Podospermum   (DC.) Benth. in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 532. 1873.

Scorzonera subg. Podospermum   (DC.) Lipsch., Fragm. Monogr. Gen. Scorzonera   1: 7. 1935. Type: Podospermum laciniatum   (L.) DC.

Diagnostic features.

Herbs, biennial or perennial; leaves (at least some) pinnately divided; phyllaries in several series, often subapically corniculate; achene with conspicuous cylindrical carpopodium usually 1/5-1/3 as long as achene body; achene surface mostly smooth, more rarely verrucose or undulate and glabrous or rarely somewhat hairy; pollen with 18 or 24 lacunae; sclerenchyma in achene mesophyll of diverse orientation (outer layers orientated parallel to the achene axis, the inner ones obliquely or perpendicularly orientated).


Habit, life form, subterranean parts: biennial or perennial herbs, with taproot, often with woody caudex.

Leaves: glabrous or pubescent, mostly located in the lower third of the stem, rosulate leaves usually present. Heterophylly often present (basal leaves petiolate, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, cauline leaves (sub)sessile, lobate to entire).

Stem, synflorescence: stem solitary or branched, leafy (especially in lower third), glabrous or pubescent, capitula terminal.

Pollen: echinolophate, tricolporate and each colpus divided into 2 lacunae; with 24 (6 abporal, 6 equatorial, 6 interporal and 6 polar: Pinar et al. 2016) or, more rarely, 18 (6 abporal, 6 equatorial, 6 interporal; S. laciniata   : Blackmore 1982).

Capitula: involucre pubescent and glabrescent at fruiting, phyllaries in several series, outer phyllaries triangular or ovate, inner phyllaries narrower, oblong or lanceolate, 2-3 times longer than outer phyllaries, receptacle naked, florets yellow, > 20, equal to or longer than involucre.

Achenes: 6-13 mm, with carpopodium, outer achenes slightly curved, with 10, rarely 5 ribs or roundish (two achene ribs S. armeniaca   and S. alpigena   can be elongated into small wings), glabrous or with scattered pubescence; achene wall with parenchyma continuous, above sclerenchyma and also well-expressed (continuous or discontinuous) in the principal ribs below sclerenchyma), sclerenchyma continuous, diversely orientated (outer layers orientated parallel to the achene axis, the inner ones obliquely or perpendicularly orientated), air cavities and tannins absent.

Pappus: 5-14 mm, white or dirty white, bristles plumose and only apically scabrid.

Chromosome number.

x = 7, diploids.


(1) Scorzonera alpigena   (K.Koch) Grossh.

(2) Scorzonera armeniaca   (Boiss. & A.Huet) Boiss.

(3) Scorzonera cana   (C.A.Mey.) Griseb.

(4) Scorzonera grossheimii   Lipsch. & Vassilcz.

(5) Scorzonera hieraciifolia   Hayek

(6) Scorzonera kandavanica   Rech.f.

(7) Scorzonera kirpicznikovii   Lipsch.

(8) Scorzonera lachnostegia   (Woronow) Lipsch.

(9) Scorzonera laciniata   L.

(10) Scorzonera luristanica   Rech.f.

(11) Scorzonera meshhedensis   (Rech.f.) Rech.f.

(12) Scorzonera meyeri   (K.Koch) Lipsch. (Fig. 16F View Figure 16 )

(13) Scorzonera persepolitana   Boiss.

(14) Scorzonera radicosa   Boiss.

(15) Scorzonera schischkinii   Lipsch. & Vassilcz.

(16) Scorzonera songorica   (Kar. & Kir.) Lipsch. & Vassilcz.

Distribution area.

Africa: DZ; EG; ES (Canary Islands); LY; MA; TN. Asia-Temperate: AF; AM; AZ; CN; CY; GE; GR; IL; IQ; IR; JO; KG; KZ; LB; RU (Asiatic part); SY; TJ; TR; TM; UZ. Asia-Tropical: IN; PK. Europe: all countries.

Scorzonera laciniata   is introduced in Australasia (AU); North America (US); South America (AR).

The following species may also belong to the Podospermum   clade based on their morphological characters: Scorzonera grigoraschvilii   (Sosn.) Lipsch., S. idae   (Sosn.) Lipsch., S. lipschitzii   (Kuth.) Czerep.