Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837
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|Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837|
This possibly biggest of all pholcid species is easily distinguished from other Australian pholcids by its large size. Both the procursus (Millot, 1941: figs. 1A, C) and the epigynum (Millot, 1946: fig. 1) are unique. It probably originated from the Middle East. Its (poorly known) congeners are from Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Tadzhikistan.
This species probably originated form northern Africa, the Mediterranean region, or the Middle East. It is most easily distinguished by the two pairs of distinctive apophyses on the male chelicerae (Millot, 1946: fig. 29A) and by the shape of the epigynum (Millot, 1946: fig. 31B).
Physocyclus globosus (Taczanowski, 1874) Illustrations : Brignoli, 1981: figs. 14–18, 21–24;
Huber and Eberhard, 1997: figs. 1, 2, 7A, B, 9.
Physocyclus has a much more restricted distribution (western USA to Costa Rica) than previously thought, and P. globosus is probably the only species found all over the world in tropical and subtropical climates. Physocyclus appears to be closely related to the Australian genus Trichocyclus , but P. globosus is easily distinguished from Trichocyclus species and other Australian pholcids by the bulbal apophysis, the shape of the procursus, and the epigynum (Huber and Eberhard, 1997: figs. 1, 7).
Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763) Illustrations : Brignoli, 1971: figs. 1–6; Timm,
1976: figs. 1, 2; Huber, 1995: figs. 1A, 2A, B,
Holocnemus is closely related to (possibly a synonym of) Crossopriza , and shares the northern African and Mediterranean distribution. The only cosmopolitan species, H. pluchei , is easily distinguished from other Australian pholcids by the bulbal apophyses and the small cheliceral apophyses (Huber, 1995: figs. 2B, 4A).
Figures 430, 432, 433, 437
Further illustrations: Lawrence, 1967: figs. 3–5.
This species has previously been known only from eastern South Africa (Natal). It is interesting to note that even there it is a ‘‘semidomesticated species’’ (Lawrence, 1967: 299), ‘‘common in buildings... in various rooms and outhouses’’ (Lawrence, 1947: 15). Given this apparent preadaptation to live with humans, it seems surprising that this species has not been found on other continents before. However, as mentioned above, some records of S. pallidus might actually result from misidentifications of S. natalensis . In Australia, S. natalensis has been collected at various localities, some of them densely populated urban areas (M. Gray, personal commun.), but apparently never in houses. It is easily distinguished from S. pallidus as shown in figs. 430–437.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: SOUTH AFRICA: Zululand, Kosi Bay Reserve, Kosi Lakes (27°00̍S, 32°24̍E), June 5–15, 1995 (E. & R. Kyle, R. A. Cooper), 13 3♀ ( WAM 99 View Materials /1482–7). AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: Tuart Hill near Perth (31°53̍S, 115°51.5̍E), Sept. 24, 1993 – May 21, 1994 (M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock), 33 4♀ ~ 10 juveniles ( WAM 99 View Materials /2117–2135). New South Wales: Ashford, Ashford Cave (29°12̍S, 151°00̍E), Jan. 31, 1995 (S. Eberhard), 13 1 juvenile ( AMS KS49265 ) ; Malabar (33°58̍S, 151°15̍E), June 26 and Sept. 28, 1966 (R. E. Mascord), 3♀ ( AMS KS48725 , 56197 ) ; Penrith (33°45̍S, 150°42̍E), Aug. 25, 1979 (A. Johnson), 1♀ ( AMS KS65700 ) .
chavanei); DeelemanReinhold and Prinsen,
1987: figs. 1–9.
Since Micropholcus is a monotypic genus, and the sister group is not known, the origin of the pantropical M. fauroti is obscure. The species is new for Australia, and is represented in the collections studied by only two females from Western Australia, Broome, Cable Beach (17°57̍S, 122°12̍E), July 9, 1981 (D. Hirst), ‘‘on rocks, base of which are at high tide mark’’, in SAM (N1999/862– 3). Males of this species are easily distinguished by their long dorsal hinged process on the procursus (Millot, 1946: fig. 2A). Females are much more difficult to identify, but have a characteristic triangular structure in the internal genitalia (DeelemanReinhold and Prinsen, 1987: fig. 7).
Figs. 430–437. Smeringopus natalensis (430, 432, 433, 437), S. pallidus (431, 434–436). 430, 431. Left procursi, retrolateral views. 432, 434. Left genital bulbs, retrolateral views. 433, 435. Left genital bulbs, prolateral views. 436, 437. Epigyna, ventral views. Scale lines: 0.3 mm (430–435), 0.5 mm (436, 437).
Illustrations: Huber, 1997a: figs. 2–4, 1997b:
fig. 1. Modisimus is a New World genus, and
shortlegged representatives similar to M. culicinus (mostly undescribed) are diverse on the Antilles and in Florida. Outside this area, M. culicinus has been recorded from various countries in the Americas and from the Congo, the Seychelles, and Micronesia; it is new to Australia. The collections studied contain a male from Queensland, Rose Bay near Bowen (20°00̍S, 148°16̍E), July 27–Dec. 2, 1992 (R. Raven, P. & E. Lawless, M. Shaw), in QMB ( S24958 View Materials ); a male from Queensland, Mt. Molloy (16°44̍S, 145°19̍E), 400 m elev., ‘‘riparian/woodland’’, 1992–1993 (S. Burnett), in QMB ( S33178 View Materials ); and a female from Papua New Guinea, Central Province, Sept. 1, 1985 (D. Court) in the CLD collection. Males of this species are easily distinguished by the cuticular lobe on the clypeus (Huber, 1997b: fig. 1).
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