Periclystus circuiter ( Walker, 1853 )
Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David, 2020, Morphological phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae), Zootaxa 4796 (1), pp. 1-322: 275-279
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|Periclystus circuiter ( Walker, 1853 )|
Myrmeleon circuiter Walker, 1853:400 (OD); Gerstaecker 1885b:114 (cit); Gerstaecker 1888:105 (cit).
Glenurus circuiter (Walker) : Hagen 1866:405 (ncb); Froggatt 1902:362 (cit); Handschin 1935:690 (cit).
Periclystus circuiter (Walker) : Esben-Petersen 1915:68 (ncb, ill); Esben-Petersen 1918:6 (cit); Esben-Petersen 1923:586 (cit); Tillyard 1926:323 (cit., ill); Adams 1936:25 (cit., ill); Stange 1976:307 (cat); New 1985b:5 (key, rd, ill); New 1996:91 (cat); Stange 2004:107 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat).
Periclystus callipeplus Gerstaecker, 1888:107 (OD); Navás 1914:470 (cit); Esben-Petersen 1915:68 (syn); Stange 1976:307 (cat); New 1985b:5 (cit); New 1996:67 (cat); Stange 2004:98 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat).
Diagnosis. Body mostly dark; wings broad, apices strongly falcate; hind wing with two large brown bands separated by a broad hyaline area.
Description. Lengths: forewing: 35–45 mm; hind wing: 31–42 mm.
Head ( Figs. 145 View FIGURE 145 a–b): Labrum pale, set with a line of elongate setae. Clypeus reddish brown with ventral margin pale; set with some elongate black setae. Frons mostly reddish brown, but slightly darker around antennae in some specimens, and dorsal area pale in most specimens; covered with short black setae. Gena reddish brown. Vertex strongly raised; pale to reddish brown with some small irregular dark marks medially; darker areas covered with short black setae. Ocular setae absent. Antennae filiform; elongate,> 2x length of pronotum; distance between antennae wider than scape width; scape and pedicel reddish brown except for distal margin pale; flagellomeres entirely pale, except for brown marks on dorsal surface of apical flagellomeres; torular membrane entirely pale; flagellomeres almost as long as wide at base, but apical ones slightly wider than long; all segments set with short black setae. Mandible reddish brown, with internal margin darker. Palpi, maxillary and labial reddish brown but maxillary generally darker; apical labial palpomere fusiform, palpimacula opening oval-shaped, located medially.
Thorax ( Fig. 145b View FIGURE 145 ): Pronotum about as long as wide; posterior margin about as wide as anterior; subapical furrow present; brown to dark brown except for some darker central marks and area anterior to furrow paler in some specimens; covered with short black setae and very long setae at margins and medial area. Mesonotum black, except for small rounded pale marks in some specimens, mainly at prescutum; set with short black setae, and few elongate black ones, generally at prescutum, two longitudinal lines at scutum, and distal margin of scutellum. Metanotum black with a thin medial longitudinal pale line, set with long black setae, mainly at prescutum and distal margin of scutellum. Pterothoracic pleura black; covered with long black setae; Miller’s organ absent.
Wings ( Fig. 145c View FIGURE 145 ): Broad with tip strongly falcate; anterior Banksian line present in both wings, posterior absent; veins mostly dark brown, but some veins intercalated with white spots, beset with short black setae. Male pilula axillaris present. Forewing membrane mostly hyaline with two irregular dark brown lines (one around tip of prefork area, and other near pterostigma), and irregular brown areas, mainly at tip, base, posterior margin, and around some crossveins, mainly at mediocubital, subcostal, and radial areas; CuA fork located between RP origin and first fork; four to five presectoral crossveins; subcostal veinlets mostly simple, but few distal ones forked; posterior area much wider than prefork area. Hind wing veins mostly white; membrane mostly hyaline except for two broad brown lines, an apical and a subapical near rhegmal area, and some small marks around radial crossveins; MP fork located near RP origin; subcostal veinlets simple; one presectoral crossvein.
Legs ( Figs. 145 View FIGURE 145 a–b): All pairs of legs, femur elongate (> 3.5x length of coxa); tibia slightly longer than femur but about twice longer than tarsi; tibial spurs surpassing T2 apex; T3 and T4 about same size, T2 slightly longer than T3, T1 twice longer than T2, and T5 twice longer than T1; claws about half of T5 length; all segments set with short black setae, and scattered long setae; T5 ventrally with two rows of thick, long, black setae. Proleg sense hair absent; tibia with antennal cleaning setae ventroapically; coxa and trochanter black, femur basally dark brown but remaining pale, tibia and tarsi pale (some darker specimens with femur mostly dark brown and tibia with three brown marks). Mesoleg with colour pattern similar to proleg (darker specimens with femur dark brown, except for pale apex, and tibia is mostly dark brown with three pale marks). Metaleg with femur and tibia slightly longer than in other legs; coxa and trochanter black but remaining segments pale (darker specimens with irregular brown marks on femur and tibia apex).
Abdomen: Mostly dark brown except for pale basal half of tergite 3 and 4 and basal half of sternites 2 and 3 (entirely dark brown in darker specimens). Beset with black setae.
Male Terminalia ( Figs. 145 View FIGURE 145 a–d): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded, in lateral view, set with elongate black setae. 9 th sternite short, with posterior margin straight in ventral view; covered with black setae. Gonarcus broad with anterior margin large and almost straight in lateral view; in posterior view very broad and curved. Mediuncus large, curved, with tip acute in lateral view; in posterior view with apex enlarged and acute. Paramere in lateral view elongate with anterior margin curved and apex divided into two lobes: dorsal lobe larger with tip rounded, ventral lobe shorter with tip acute; in posterior view with dorsal margin curved and ventral margin split into two acute lobes; in ventral view with anterior margin rounded and posterior with two acute expansions (external larger).
Female Terminalia ( Figs. 145 View FIGURE 145 e–f): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded covered with thin elongate setae. Lateral gonapophyses rounded, smaller than ectoproct, covered with elongate setae, and few short and thickened setae ventrally. 7 th sternite long, with distal margin straight in ventral view, and distal area smaller in lateral view; covered with long black setae. Pregenital plate small, semi triangular with apex rounded in ventral view. Posterior gonapophyses broad, long, with apex curved and rounded, covered with many long black setae and many cavisetae apically. 9 th tergite with a broad membranous digitiform process. Anterior gonapophyses a large plate covered with long setae. Ventral membrane gonapophyseal plates present.
Distribution ( Fig. 142 View FIGURE 142 ). Australia: ACT, NSW, NT*, QLD, VIC*. Numerous records from far eastern Australia, with an outlier in northern Northern Territory. See also Distribution for P. laceratus .
Adult activity period. Records for October to May.
Biology. Unknown, larva unknown.
Name-bearing type. Myrmeleon circuiter : Lectotype (by present designation), male, BMNH, high-resolution images examined. Type locality: Australia. From original description: “a, b. Australia. From Mr. Strange's collection”. From Esben-Petersen (1915): “…agrees very well with the type-series of Walker”. From New (1985b): “ Holotype, 'Australia' (BMNH) (seen)”. From Stange (2004): “ Holotype, Australia (BMNH!)”.
Walker’s (1853) original description of P. circuiter explicitly states that the type series consisted of two specimens, denoted as “a” and “b”. The two specimens are currently deposited in the BMNH, and neither was fixed as the holotype; thus, the holotype citations of New (1985b, 1996) and Stange (2004) are incorrect. Because no mention is made in any of these citations about the existence of multiple syntypes, there can be no explicit indication that an intentional act of selection was being made among multiple syntypes, and thus, none of these ‘holotype’ citations appear to qualify as lectotype designations under Art. 74.5. In order to fix the name-bearing type of P. circuiter in a manner that is consistent with current usage we hereby designate the male BMNH specimen (NHMUK010288158) as its lectotype, by which action the second BMNH specimen, a female (NHMUK010288157), becomes a paralectotype.
Periclystus callipeplus : Holotype (by implicit monotypy), female, ZIMG, high-resolution images examined. Type locality: Australia. From original description: “(fem.).—Patria: Australia ”. From New (1996): “Type data: holotype ZMH ♀ (?destroyed)*. / Type locality: Australia ”. From Stange (2004): “ Holotype, Australia (EMAU [today ZIMG])”.
New (1996) incorrectly noted that the holotype was destroyed. The specimen is present in the ZIMG, as confirmed from digital images received from that collection. Gerstaecker did not explicitly state the number of specimens in the type series; here, we accept the ZIMG specimen as a holotype by implicit monotypy. Condition: good; right antenna missing, terminalia dissected.
Additional material examined (25♂, 50♀). AUSTRALIA: ACT: Black Mountain : ii–iii.1967, Light Trap (1♀, ANIC) ; 18.i.1965, light trap (1♀, ANIC) ; Canberra : 22.i.1960, E.F. Riek (1♀, ANIC) ; 13.ii.1962 (1♂, ANIC) ; 1.iii.1957 (1♀, ANIC) ; 18.iii.1953 (1♀, FSCA) ; 26.iii.1963 (1♀, FSCA) ; Cotter Dam : xii.1930, G. Jeffries (1♂, ANIC) ; New South Wales: (1♀, MVM) ; Bathurst : Coll. Froggatt (1♂, ANIC) ; Glen Innes, Prison farm, 1969–70 (1♀, ANIC) ; Grafton : 30 km W of Danahara Creek, 16iii.1969, J. Frazier (1♀, ANIC) ; Mount Kaputar : 11.ii.1997, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Narrabeen : 26.xi.1961, Missd. Walsh. (1♂, AMSA) ; 10.ii.1922 (1♀, MVM) ; Syd- ney: Loftus , 26.i.1980, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; 0.8 km E of Three Ways , 32 o 46’S– 150 o 33’E, 31.xii.1977, G. Daniels (1♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Woodford : 11.x.1909, G.A. Waterhouse (1♂, ANIC) ; Northern Territory: Batchelor : iv.1966 (1♀, SAMA) ; Queensland: (3♀, QMBA) ; Agnes Water : 40 km E Miriam Vale, 4.xi.1984, N.W. Rodd (1♀, AMSA) ; Armstrong Creek crossing: 13 km NNW of Guthalungra, 26.i.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Bluff Range : 25 o 36’S– 152 o 03’E, 15.xii.1970, H. Frauca (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 8.i.1971 (1♂, ANIC) ; Brisbane : (2♂, 10♀, QMBA) ; Coll. Froggatt (1♂, ANIC) ; 5.xii.1924 (1♂, 1♀, QMBA) ; 5.i.1928 (1♂, MVM) ; 11.v.1936 (1♂, MVM) ; 29.x.1936 (1♀, MVM) ; 25.ii.1940, JA Beck (1♀, QMBA) ; Highvale 14mls NW, 30.i.1960, R. Strantman (1♂, ANIC) ; - 27.50 o– 153.0167 o, 1.xi.1999, S. Winterton (1♂, CSCA) ; Bunya Mountains : 14.ii.1957 (1♂, MVM) ; Cape River : 100 km S of Charters Towers, 21.xii.1983, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; Chillagoe : 20.i.1988, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; Coast Range : 12 km SE of Biggenden, 22–23.xi.1977, H. Frauca (1♀, ANIC) ; Dunwich : 7–10.i.1992 (1♀, QMBA) ; Gayndah: Masters (1♀, AMSA) ; Herberton : (1♀, ANIC) ; Kuranda : (1♀, 1♂, SAMA) ; Linnaroo Creek Road: 20 miles near Mareeba, at MVL, 30.xii.1972, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Little Crystal Creek: Mount Spec , 1000ft, 3.i.1968, R. Dobson (1♀, ANIC) ; Mount Louisa : 27.xii.1984 (1♂, QMBA) ; Ring’s Rock: Bluewater Range, S end of Paluma Range , 4.i.1992, L. Ring (1♂, QMBA) ; 5 km NW of Rolling- stone, 19.01S– 146.22E, 18.iii.1995, E.D. Edwards & M. Matthews (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; Station Creek : 4.xii.1988, J. Ol- ive (1♂, AMSA) ; Toowoomba : scrub bellow escarpment 18.xii.1976, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; xii.1919 (2♀, SAMA) ; Virginia : 4.ii.1926, J.A. Beck (1♀, QMBA) . No Label (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; Woodford : 12.ii.1928 (1♀, QMBA) ; 1.ii.1940 (1♀, QMBA) ; Victoria: (1♂, 2♀, MVM) ; Fernshaw : (1♂, MVM) ; Noorinbee : 13.ii.1959 (1♂, MVM) .
Comments. Periclystus circuiter appears to be the largest and most common species within the genus. Highresolution images of the holotype of P. callipeplus were examined for this study. We reconfirm here that it is a synonym of P. circuiter , as originally proposed by Esben-Petersen (1915) and as supported by all subsequent authors. See also Comments for P. aureolatus .
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