Austrogymnocnemia dissoluta (Gerstaecker, 1885),

Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David, 2020, Morphological phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae), Zootaxa 4796 (1), pp. 1-322: 105-110

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Austrogymnocnemia dissoluta (Gerstaecker, 1885)

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Austrogymnocnemia dissoluta (Gerstaecker, 1885)  , new combination

( Figs.42View FIGURE 42, 45–46View FIGURE 45View FIGURE 46) DAF72FF9-3A3C-4632-A103-F3E75715529D

Myrmeleon dissolutus Gerstaecker, 1885a:26  (OD); Gerstaecker 1885b:114 (cit). Glenurus dissolutus (Gerstaecker)  : Banks 1910:40 (ncb). Glenoleon dissolutus (Gerstaecker)  : Stange 2004:103 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat); Machado et al. 2019 (tree). [ Glenoleon dissolutus (Gerstaecker)  [misidentifications of Megagonoleon stigmatus  ]: Banks 1913:224 (ncb, key); Esben-Pe-

tersen 1915:72 (key, ill) [as “ dissolutum ”]; Esben-Petersen 1923:586 (cit); Handschin 1935:690 (cit); Stange 1976:305

(cat); New 1985b:36 (key, rd, ill); New 1996:82 (cat); Whittington 2002:382 (cit).] Glenoleon mcalpinei  New 1985b:35 (OD); New 1996:82 (cat); Stange 2004:104 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat). new synonym

Diagnosis. Forewing broad, without a continuous longitudinal brown line; hind wing without a spot in poststigmal area; protibia as long as protarsus; pronotum mostly black with pale marks; tibial spurs long; female posterior gonapophysis with cavisetae; male 9 th sternite straight.

Description. Lengths: forewing: 22–34 mm; hind wing: 21–32 mm.

Head ( Figs. 45View FIGURE 45 a–b): Labrum pale; set with a line of elongate setae. Clypeus pale; with few elongate pale setae, some larger specimens with few long black setae. Frons predominantly black, except for ventral area pale; beset with short black setae. Gena pale. Vertex raised; in anterior view pale, with five black rounded spots on median line (some specimens two lateral spots connected forming a short transverse black line); in dorsal view pale except for two black perpendicular central lines and two large rounded lateral marks on posterior border, in some specimens the central longitudinal line is interrupted near the transverse line, covered with short black setae. Ocular setae absent. Antennae clubbed; elongate,> 2.5x length of pronotum; distance between antennae wider than scape width; scape and pedicel black, apical flagellomeres black, subapical segments pale, remaining of flagellomeres dark brown, with a pale distal ring in some specimens; torular membrane pale; flagellomeres almost as long as wide at base, apical ones much wider than long; all segments set with short black setae. Mandibles pale, with tip black. Palpi, maxillary and labial pale, except for few black spots on basal maxillary segment; apical labial palpomere fusiform, palpimacula opening oval-shaped, located medially.

Thorax ( Fig. 45bView FIGURE 45): Pronotum about as long as broad; posterior margin as wide as anterior; subapical furrow present; mostly pale with some black marks as follows: two large spots around midline on anterior margin before furrow, a broad longitudinal medial line after furrow (sometimes connected with the two anterior marks), two thin longitudinal curved lines near center of each side (lines medially interrupted in some specimens), a large lateral mark extending from posterior margin until furrow; covered with short black setae and some long black setae on margins. Mesonotum mostly black, with some pale areas as follows: two rounded spots on prescutum, a large mark enclosing a thin black line at each side of scutum, a small rounded mark near wing base, two lateral marks on scutellum; covered with short black setae, and some elongate setae on prescutum. Metanotum usually black with two longitudinal broad pale lines near central area, some specimens with a small medial pale triangle on anterior border; covered with few short black setae. Pterothoracic pleura black (sometimes with scattered pale marks on borders of few sclerites); set with white setae; Miller’s organ present.

Wings ( Fig. 45cView FIGURE 45): Fairly broad; anterior Banksian line present in both wings, posterior only distinguishable in forewing of some specimens; veins brown, but some intercalated with pale spots, beset with short black setae. Male pilula axillaris present. Forewing membrane hyaline but with many brown marks distributed through the whole wing but slightly darker at tip, mediocubital and subcostal areas, gradate veins, and pterostigma (specimens from NT and WA with membrane mostly amber, brown marks reduced); tip of pterostigma white; CuA fork located between RP origin and first fork; three to four presectoral crossveins, connected by veinlets in some specimens; costal area large, subcostal veinlets mostly simple, but few distal ones forked; posterior area narrower than prefork area. Hind wing membrane mostly hyaline except for a large rhegmal spot (some specimens with rhegmal brown mark larger and connected to pterostigma); MP fork located between RP origin and first fork; subcostal veinlets simple; one presectoral crossvein, with a medial spur in most specimens.

Legs ( Figs. 45View FIGURE 45 a–b): All pairs of legs, femur long (> 2.5x length of coxa); femur slightly longer than tibia; tibia slightly shorter or about as long as tarsi; tibial spurs reaching T1 apex (few specimens from WA without spurs); T2, T3 and T4 about same size, T1 about twice as long as T2, T5 slightly longer than T1; claws slightly shorter than T5 length; coxa, trochanter, and femur set with short white setae; femur, tibia and tarsi set with short black setae, and scattered long black setae, femur and tibia with some elongate white setae; T5 ventrally with two rows of thick, long, black setae. Proleg sense hair slightly shorter than half femur length; tibia with antennal cleaning setae ventroapically; coxa pale with scattered black marks on external margin, trochanter pale, femur mostly pale but apex dark brown (part or whole dorsal surface brown in some specimens); tibia mostly pale, but apex dark brown; T3, T4 and apex of T2 and T5 dark brown, remaining tarsi areas pale. Mesoleg similar to proleg except for coxa entirely pale, and sense hair slightly shorter. Metaleg with femur and tibia slightly longer than in other legs; colour pattern similar to mesolegs, except for femur and tarsi slightly paler, tibia pale with tip dark brown.

Abdomen: Mostly dark brown, with scattered pale marks in central area, in some specimens sternites (mainly basal ones) mostly pale. Segments beset with elongate white setae, and some short black setae.

Male Terminalia ( Figs. 46View FIGURE 46 a–d): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded in lateral view, set with elongate black setae. 9 th sternite with posterior margin elongate and rounded medially in ventral view; covered with elongate black setae. Gonarcus arched, with posterior area broad, anterior margin acute in lateral view; central area less sclerotized in posterior view. Mediuncus with base wide, apical half thin and located between parameres. Paramere broad, in lateral view with posteroventral region more sclerotized; in posteroventral view with internal margin rounded with tip straight.

Female Terminalia ( Figs. 46View FIGURE 46 e–f): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded covered with thin elongate setae. Lateral gonapophyses small, rounded, beset with cavisetae. 7 th sternite distal margin curved, covered with long black setae. Pregenital plate large, in ventral view with anterior margin rounded, and with a small acute extension in posterior margin. Posterior gonapophyses elongate, with tip curved and slightly enlarged, covered with many long black setae, and some elongate cavisetae at apex. Anterior gonapophyses a small rounded plate covered with black setae. 9 th tergite with ventral margin covered with long setae, and with a long membranous digitiform process distally. Ventral membrane gonapophyseal plates present.

Distribution ( Fig. 42View FIGURE 42). Australia: NSW, NT, QLD, WA. Widespread and common across northern Australia. The G. dissolutus  records presented by New (1985b) do not belong to this species but to Megagonoleon stigmatus  , see Comments below.

Adult activity period. Records for November to May.

Biology. Unknown, larva unknown.

Name-bearing types. Myrmeleon dissolutus  : Holotype (by implicit monotypy), female, ZIMG, high-resolution image examined. Type locality: Australia. From original description: "Patria: Australia ". From New (1985b): “ Holotype (?) ‘Australia’ (Greifswald, not seen) (diagnosis based on specimen det. Esben-Petersen, in ANIC). From New (1996): "Type data: holotype EMAG adult sex indet.*. / Type locality: Australia ". From Stange (2004): “ Holotype, Australia (EMAU [today ZIMG])”. Condition: excellent, no parts missing.

Glenoleon mcalpinei  : Holotype (by original designation), female, AMSA, high-resolution images examined. Type locality: Australia, Queensland, 1.6 km W of Mount Lamond, Claudie River. From original description: “ Holotype, ♀, Queensland, Claudie R., 1-mile W. Mt Lamond, 16.xii.1971, D. K. McAlpine, G. A. Holloway (AM)”. Condition: good; antennae and left pro- and mesoleg missing. 

Additional material examined (61♂, 108♀, 6?). AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: Banyabba Nature Reserve: i.1971 (1♀, ANIC); Deriah Aboriginal Area: 23 km E of Narrabri, - 30.345S– 150.014E, 10.xi. 2009, 460m, Ooline, D.R. Britton & J. Recsei (1♂, AMSA); Northern Territory: Alexandria: 18.iii.1954 (1♀, SAMA); An- dado Station: Rodinga Range, iii.1993 (2♂, 2♀, SAMA); 37 km E of Borroloola, 21.xii.1991, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 2♀, AMSA); 65 km W of Borroloola, 13.xi.2011, D. Marshall (2♀, TAMU); Burrell’s Creek: x.1972 (1♀, ANIC); Cahill Crossing: xi.1972 (1♂, ANIC); Cullen River crossing: S of Pine Creek, 3.i.1992, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♀, AMSA); Daly Aboriginal Reserve: x.1974 (1♀, ANIC); Darwin: (1♀, ANIC); Jabiluka Lagoon: xi.1972 (1♂, ANIC); Katherine: xii.2004 (1♀, ANIC); Keep River crossing: Victoria Highway, 7.i.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Keep River Natural Park: 15 o 52’S– 129 o 03’E, 3.i.1993 (1♀, QMBA); 110 km E of Kununarra, Victoria Hwy, 26.xii.1991, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); Larrimah: (3?, QMBA); Mount Cahill: xi.1972 (1♀, ANIC); 70 km E of The Three Ways, near Tennant Creek township, 21.i.1984, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♂, 2♀, AMSA); Victoria R.: 18 km W of Timber Creek Township, 25.xii.1991, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Victoria Highway (Hwy 1): 30 km W of Katherine, 14 o 40.776’S– 132 o 05.142’E, 125m, 30.xi.2011, K. Hill & D. Marshall (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); Waterhouse River: Mataranka Home- stead, 23.xii.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA); Queensland: Almaden: Chillagoe District, 1931, W.D. Campbell / Glenoleon conspersus  det. by T.R. New (1♀, AMSA); 37 km W of Alpha, 23: 37.4S– 146: 16.2E, 12.i.2002, Cooley, Cowan, Hill, Marshall & Moulds (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); Archer River crossing: 60 km N of Coen, 29.xii.1983, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); Bald Hills Station: near turnoff to Laura, N. of Cook- town, 3.i.1981, rainforest, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (3♂, AMSA); Biggenden: xii.1971 (1♀, ANIC); Biloela: 14.i.1947 (1♀, QMBA); Bin Bin Range: xii.1974 (2♂, ANIC); Bluff Range: xii.1970 (1♂, ANIC); i.1972 (1♀, ANIC); Brisbane: (2♀, QMBA); 29.x.1936 (2♂, 1♀, MVM); Camp Milo: Cooloola, 3–13.iii.1970, E. Dahms, Open forest, To light (1♂, QMBA); Campasie River crossing: WSW of Charters Towers, 17.i.1984, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Cape York: 1907, H. Elgret / Glenoleon conspersus Banks  = G. franzeni Esben-Petersen.  det by Franzen (1♀, AMSA); Carnarvon Gorge National Park: at Peter’s house, Information Centre Camp, 30.xi.1993, G. Cassis (1♀, AMSA); Carnarvon Range: xii.1938, N. Geary (1♀, AMSA); ii.1944 (1♀, AMSA); Chillagoe: 20.i.1988, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Chinchilla: 12.xi.1990 (3?, QMBA); Claudie R.: 4 miles W. Mt. Lamond, 16.xii.1971, mv light, D.K. McAlpinei & G.A. Holloway (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); 11.ii.1914 (1♀, MVM); Clermont: (1♂, 2♀, QMBA); 7.ii.1981, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); x.1922 (1♂, ANIC); xi.1928 (1♀, ANIC); Coen: 6.i.1988, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♀, AMSA); Coleman River crossing: W of Musgrave, 14 o 47’55’’S– 143 o 21’34’’E, 31.ix.1993 (1♂, QMBA); Dawson R.: N of Injune, 25:23:02S–148:38:44E, 11.i.1999, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (3♂, 7♀, AMSA); Degilbo: xii.1978 (1♂, ANIC); Hughenden: 4.ii.1981, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (3♀, AMSA); Injune: 12.ii.1939, N. Geary (1♀, AMSA); 55 km NNE of Injune, 23.xi.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA); Isaacs River crossing: Dingo/Mt Flora road, 24.i.1982, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (3♀, AMSA); 5 km N of Leyburn, 27 o 58’S– 151 o 38’E, 3.iv. 1993, 450 m, G & A Daniels, CJ Burwell (1♂, QMBA); 30 km S of Lynd junction, Kennedy Dev. Rd, 19:06S–144:28E, 6.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall & Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Mareeba: 21.i.1951, J.G. Brooks / det. T.R. New Glenoleon conspersum  (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); 14.xii.1952, J.G. Brooks (1♂, AMSA); 30.xi.1952 (1♂, 3♀, MVM); McLeod R.: 9¼mi N Mount Carbini, 9.xii.1965, G.L. Bush, 65133, at UV light (2♀, TAMU); Miles: 10.xi.1986 (1♂, 4♀, QMBA); 28 km W of Monto, xi.1960 (1♂, 1♀, FSCA); Mount Garmet: i.1961 (1♀, ANIC); xii.1970 (3♂, 3♀, ANIC); Archers creek, xii.1964 (1♀, ANIC); Mount Moffat: 25 o 01’22’’S– 147 o 56’59’’E, 19.i.1998, J & A Skevington, S Winterton (1♀, QMBA); Nine Mile Creek: 14 km NNW of Miles, 24.i.1990, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♀, AMSA); Noonbah Station: SW of Longreach, 24: 05.2S– 143: 08.7E, 14.i.2002, Cooley, Hill, Marshall & Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Rocky Creek: Atherton Tableland, 14.iv.1944, M.C. Nott (1♂, SAMA); 43 km S of Rolleston, 24.xi.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Roma: 30.xi.1930, Franzen, Coll. Esben-Petersen (1♀, ZMUC; 1♂, 1♀, QMBA); ii.1930 (1♀, ANIC); Sandy Creek: 29.xi.1997 (1♂, QMBA); Silver Plains Homestead: xii.1959 (1♂, ANIC); i.1962 (1♀, ANIC); i.1963 (1♂, ANIC); ii.1964 (1♀, ANIC); Stradbroke Island: xii.1912 (1♂, 1♀, ANIC); Taroom: 25 o 36’S– 149 o 46’E, xi.1992 (1♂, QMBA); Thursday Island: (1♀, ANIC); Tinnanbar: 2.5 km S 25 o 47’S– 152 o 58’E, 8.xii.2002, C. Burwell (1♂, CSCA); Townsville: 10–17.xii.1987, T. Goertemiller (1♂, TAMU; 2♂, FSCA); Yeppoon: i.1995 (1♀, ANIC); York Downs: 50 km E of Weipa, 28.xii.1983, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♀, AMSA); Weir River: S of Moonie, 22.xii.1989, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♀, AMSA); Western Australia: 23 km WSW of Barradale, 22.56S– 114.45E, 30.iii.1971, E.F. Riek (1♀, ANIC); Dunham River: 100 km S of Wyndham, 3.i.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA); Durak River crossing: Gibb River road E. Kimberley, 29.xii.1991, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 1♀, AMSA); 13 mi EbyS of Karonie, 9.xi.1969, Key & Upton / Key’s Field notes. Trip 63, Stop 19422.7 (1♂, ANIC); Kununurra: 6.i.1986, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (2♂, 4♀, AMSA); Pingagoora: 14.v.1953 (1♀, SAMA); 50 km SW of Sandfire Flat, between Broome and Port Hedland, 15.ii.1977, M.S. Moulds & B.J. Moulds (4♀, AMSA); Townsville: 1–9.xi.1987, I. Goertemiller (5♂, 2♀, FSCA); Wamberry Station: Carnarvon, 22.iv.1955, A. Snell (1♀, MVM); West Strelley River: 70 km SE Port Hedland, 16.ii.1977, Moulds & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA).

Comments. Austrogymnocnemia dissoluta  has been widely misidentified over the past 100 years, based on a significant early misidentification by Esben-Petersen (1915). Gerstaecker (1885a) established the species as Myrmeleon dissolutus  in a short treatment containing a brief German description, but no illustration. Banks (1910) transferred dissolutus  to Glenurus  , commenting that it was similar to his new Australian species Glenurus stigmatus  (treated here as Megagonoleon stigmatus  ). Esben-Petersen (1915), basing his treatment on the descriptions of M. dissolutus Gerstaecker  and G. stigmatus Banks  (but apparently not having seen the types of either species), transferred M. dissolutus  to Glenoleon  and published a photograph under that name. All subsequent authors, including New (1985a), who last taxonomically reviewed the species (but was not able to examine its type), have apparently interpreted M. dissolutus  based on Esben-Petersen’s figure. Unfortunately, Esben-Petersen misidentified the specimen in his photograph. Careful examination of the G. stigmatus  and M. dissolutus  holotypes via high-resolution photographs during this review, has revealed that the specimen photographed by Esben-Petersen is a dark specimen of G. stigmatus Banks  , not M. dissolutus Gerstaecker. Thus  , all information published by New, and other authors since Esben-Petersen (1915), under the name Glenoleon dissolutus  should be interpreted as Megagonoleon stigmatus  . Furthermore, due to the longstanding misinterpretation of the true M. dissolutus  , New (1985a) redescribed it under the name Glenoleon mcalpinei  , which falls here as a junior synonym. Within Austrogymnocnemia  , A. dissolutus  is closely related to A. conspersa  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4), as mentioned in the comments of the later species.














Austrogymnocnemia dissoluta (Gerstaecker, 1885)

Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David 2020

Megagonoleon stigmatus

Machado & Oswald 2020

Myrmeleon dissolutus Gerstaecker, 1885a:26

Gerstaecker. Thus 1885: 26